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PVH/Pulmonary Edema (Cardiogenic)
Emily Tsai, MD; Carol C. Wu, MD; Melissa L. Rosado-de-Christenson, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Hydrostatic pulmonary edema
            • Definitions

              • Pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) = elevated left atrial and ventricular filling pressures → increased pulmonary venous pressure
              • Cardiogenic pulmonary edema = PVH → elevated pulmonary capillary pressure → increased transudation of fluid into interstitial and alveolar spaces of lung

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Assaad S et al: Assessment of pulmonary edema: principles and practice. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 32(2):901-14, 2018
                                    2. Bentz MR et al: Intensive care unit imaging. Clin Chest Med. 36(2):219-34, 2015
                                    3. Morrissey RP et al: Chronic heart failure: current evidence, challenges to therapy, and future directions. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 11(3):153-71, 2011
                                    4. Myrianthefs P et al: Rare roentgenologic manifestations of pulmonary edema. Curr Opin Crit Care. 17(5):449-53, 2011
                                    5. Chatterjee K: The Swan-Ganz catheters: past, present, and future. A viewpoint. Circulation. 119(1):147-52. Erratum in: Circulation. 119(21):e548, 2009
                                    6. Evans DC et al: Complications associated with pulmonary artery catheters: a comprehensive clinical review. Scand J Surg. 98(4):199-208, 2009
                                    7. Wang CS et al: Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 294(15):1944-56, 2005
                                    8. Ware LB et al: Clinical practice. Acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med. 353(26):2788-96, 2005
                                    9. Gehlbach BK et al: The pulmonary manifestations of left heart failure. Chest. 125(2):669-82, 2004
                                    10. Woolley K et al: Pulmonary parenchymal manifestations of mitral valve disease. Radiographics. 19(4):965-72, 1999
                                    11. Ketai LH et al: A new view of pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Imaging. 13(3):147-71, 1998
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Hydrostatic pulmonary edema
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) = elevated left atrial and ventricular filling pressures → increased pulmonary venous pressure
                                                • Cardiogenic pulmonary edema = PVH → elevated pulmonary capillary pressure → increased transudation of fluid into interstitial and alveolar spaces of lung

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Assaad S et al: Assessment of pulmonary edema: principles and practice. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 32(2):901-14, 2018
                                                                      2. Bentz MR et al: Intensive care unit imaging. Clin Chest Med. 36(2):219-34, 2015
                                                                      3. Morrissey RP et al: Chronic heart failure: current evidence, challenges to therapy, and future directions. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 11(3):153-71, 2011
                                                                      4. Myrianthefs P et al: Rare roentgenologic manifestations of pulmonary edema. Curr Opin Crit Care. 17(5):449-53, 2011
                                                                      5. Chatterjee K: The Swan-Ganz catheters: past, present, and future. A viewpoint. Circulation. 119(1):147-52. Erratum in: Circulation. 119(21):e548, 2009
                                                                      6. Evans DC et al: Complications associated with pulmonary artery catheters: a comprehensive clinical review. Scand J Surg. 98(4):199-208, 2009
                                                                      7. Wang CS et al: Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 294(15):1944-56, 2005
                                                                      8. Ware LB et al: Clinical practice. Acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med. 353(26):2788-96, 2005
                                                                      9. Gehlbach BK et al: The pulmonary manifestations of left heart failure. Chest. 125(2):669-82, 2004
                                                                      10. Woolley K et al: Pulmonary parenchymal manifestations of mitral valve disease. Radiographics. 19(4):965-72, 1999
                                                                      11. Ketai LH et al: A new view of pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Thorac Imaging. 13(3):147-71, 1998