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Ranula
Eunice Y. L. Dai, MBBS, FRCR; H. Y. Yuen, MBChB, FRCR; Anil T. Ahuja, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Simple ranula (SR), diving ranula (DR)
        • Synonyms

          • Sublingual gland mucocele, mucous retention cyst
            • DR is also referred to as plunging ranula
        • Definitions

          • Retention cyst resulting from trauma or inflammation of sublingual gland (SLG) or minor salivary glands in sublingual space (SLS)
            • SR: Postinflammatory retention cyst of SLG or SLS minor salivary glands with epithelial lining
              • Located above mylohyoid muscle near SLG
            • DR: Extravasation pseudocyst; term used when SR becomes large & ruptures out of posterior SLS into submandibular space (SMS), creating pseudocyst lacking epithelial lining
          • Term ranula derives from Latin "rana" = frog
            • Sublingual blebs in mouth of frog resemble SR

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Brown RE et al: Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children-a pictorial review. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 6(5):591-604, 2016
                                      2. Jain P et al: Types of sublingual gland herniation observed during sonography of plunging ranulas. J Ultrasound Med. 33(8):1491-7, 2014
                                      3. Agarwal AK et al: Submandibular and sublingual spaces: diagnostic imaging and evaluation. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 45(6):1311-23, 2012
                                      4. Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 1-14, 20-23, 2011
                                      5. Choi TW et al: Hydrodissection for complete removal of a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(12):946-7, 951, 2003
                                      6. Macdonald AJ et al: Giant ranula of the neck: differentiation from cystic hygroma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):757-61, 2003
                                      7. Ahuja AT et al: Practical Head & Neck Ultrasound. London: Greenwich Medical Media. 85-104, 2000
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Simple ranula (SR), diving ranula (DR)
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Sublingual gland mucocele, mucous retention cyst
                                                • DR is also referred to as plunging ranula
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Retention cyst resulting from trauma or inflammation of sublingual gland (SLG) or minor salivary glands in sublingual space (SLS)
                                                • SR: Postinflammatory retention cyst of SLG or SLS minor salivary glands with epithelial lining
                                                  • Located above mylohyoid muscle near SLG
                                                • DR: Extravasation pseudocyst; term used when SR becomes large & ruptures out of posterior SLS into submandibular space (SMS), creating pseudocyst lacking epithelial lining
                                              • Term ranula derives from Latin "rana" = frog
                                                • Sublingual blebs in mouth of frog resemble SR

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Brown RE et al: Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children-a pictorial review. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 6(5):591-604, 2016
                                                                          2. Jain P et al: Types of sublingual gland herniation observed during sonography of plunging ranulas. J Ultrasound Med. 33(8):1491-7, 2014
                                                                          3. Agarwal AK et al: Submandibular and sublingual spaces: diagnostic imaging and evaluation. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 45(6):1311-23, 2012
                                                                          4. Harnsberger HR et al: Diagnostic Imaging: Head & Neck. 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: Amirsys, Inc. 1-14, 20-23, 2011
                                                                          5. Choi TW et al: Hydrodissection for complete removal of a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(12):946-7, 951, 2003
                                                                          6. Macdonald AJ et al: Giant ranula of the neck: differentiation from cystic hygroma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):757-61, 2003
                                                                          7. Ahuja AT et al: Practical Head & Neck Ultrasound. London: Greenwich Medical Media. 85-104, 2000