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Ranula
Richard H. Wiggins, III, MD, CIIP, FSIIM, FAHSE, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Simple ranula (SR): Sublingual gland (SLG) mucocele, SLG mucous retention cyst
                • Diving ranula (DR): Plunging ranula
              • Definitions

                • SLG or minor salivary gland retention cyst
                  • Simple: True cyst confined to sublingual space (SLS)
                  • Diving: Extravasation pseudocyst; ruptured SR extending into submandibular space (SMS)
                • Term ranula derives from Latin "rana," meaning "frog"
                  • Sublingual blebs in mouth of frog resemble SR

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Borkar NB et al: A rare case of congenital ranula. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 18(2):106-8, 2021
                                              2. Chen JX et al: Sublingual gland excision for the surgical management of plunging ranula. Am J Otolaryngol. 39(5):497-500, 2018
                                              3. Harrison JD: The pathophysiological basis and surgical management of ranula are established. World J Surg. 42(4):1208-9, 2018
                                              4. Lomas J et al: Surgical management of plunging ranulas: a 10-year case series in South East Queensland. ANZ J Surg. 88(10):1043-6, 2018
                                              5. Pontes FSC et al: Congenital ranula: a case report and literature review. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 42(6):454-7, 2018
                                              6. Sousa Melo SL et al: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma mimicking a mucocele (ranula) in the floor of the mouth. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 47(4):20170331, 2018
                                              7. Abt NB et al: Plunging ranula with prestyloid parapharyngeal space, masticator space, and parotid gland extension. B-ENT. 13(1 Suppl 27):57-60, 2017
                                              8. Katabi N et al: Update from the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumours: what is new in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for tumors and tumor-like lesions of the neck and lymph nodes. Head Neck Pathol. 11(1):48-54, 2017
                                              9. Kokong D et al: Ranula: current concept of pathophysiologic basis and surgical management options. World J Surg. 41(6):1476-81, 2017
                                              10. Lyly A et al: Plunging ranula - patient characteristics, treatment, and comparison between different populations. Acta Otolaryngol. 137(12):1271-4, 2017
                                              11. Shah Arpan K et al: Plunging ranula occurring without its oral counterpart: a case report. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 41(5):381-3, 2017
                                              12. Lee JY et al: Plunging ranulas revisited: a CT study with emphasis on a defect of the mylohyoid muscle as the primary route of lesion propagation. Korean J Radiol. 17(2):264-70, 2016
                                              13. Margalit I et al: Point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose a simple ranula. West J Emerg Med. 17(6):827-8, 2016
                                              14. Chen CJ et al: Recurrent sublingual ranula or saliva leakage from the submandibular gland? Anatomical consideration of the ductal system of the sublingual gland. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(4):675.e1-7, 2015
                                              15. Heller M et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of a plunging ranula: an unusual cause of a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Am J Emerg Med. 33(4):597.e3-4, 2015
                                              16. Jia T et al: Minimally invasive treatment of oral ranula with a mucosal tunnel. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(2):138-41, 2015
                                              17. Lee DH et al: Treatment outcomes of the intraoral approach for a simple ranula. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 119(4):e223-5, 2015
                                              18. Owens DJ et al: Orthodontics: a traumatic cause of ranula. Br Dent J. 219(5):194-5, 2015
                                              19. Sathanantham DK et al: Rapid development of a simple ranula in a child. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 124(4):322-5, 2015
                                              20. Syebele K et al: Oral mucocele/ranula: another human immunodeficiency virus-related salivary gland disease? Laryngoscope. 125(5):1130-6, 2015
                                              21. Truong K et al: Value of sialendoscopy-assisted transoral sublingual gland resection for a plunging ranula: case report and review. J Laryngol Otol. 129(5):509-12, 2015
                                              22. Garofalo S et al: Successful medical treatment for ranula in children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 117(4):e289-97, 2014
                                              23. Li J et al: Correct diagnosis for plunging ranula by magnetic resonance imaging. Aust Dent J. 59(2):264-7, 2014
                                              24. Mabongo M et al: Plunging ranula: an unusual multilocular presentation. SADJ. 69(9):416-8, 2014
                                              25. Mun SJ et al: Ductal variation of the sublingual gland: a predisposing factor for ranula formation. Head Neck. 36(4):540-4, 2014
                                              26. Yang Y et al: Surgical results of the intraoral approach for plunging ranula. Acta Otolaryngol. 134(2):201-5, 2014
                                              27. Al Ruhaimi KA: Recurrent plunging ranula of the neck. Saudi Med J. 34(3):313-5, 2013
                                              28. Alves TP et al: Successful management of oral ranula: a rare case in an infant. Gen Dent. 61(3):26-8, 2013
                                              29. de Santana Santos T et al: Excision of ranula using injection of hydrocolloid dental impression material. J Craniofac Surg. 24(5):1859-60, 2013
                                              30. Fontenot TE et al: Swelling of submandibular region. Plunging ranula. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 139(10):1073-4, 2013
                                              31. Harrison JD et al: Postmortem investigation of mylohyoid hiatus and hernia: aetiological factors of plunging ranula. Clin Anat. 26(6):693-9, 2013
                                              32. Lesperance MM: When do ranulas require a cervical approach? Laryngoscope. 123(8):1826-7, 2013
                                              33. McKinstry S et al: Bilateral plunging ranula: two case reports and a review of the literature. N Z Med J. 126(1385):81-6, 2013
                                              34. Nikitakis NG et al: Asymptomatic swelling in the floor of the mouth. Salivary duct cyst (ranula). Gen Dent. 61(1):77- 8, 2013
                                              35. O'Connor R et al: The plunging ranula: diagnostic difficulties and a less invasive approach to treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(11):1469-74, 2013
                                              36. Saji N et al: A case of impaired tongue movement in an elderly person. Diagnosis: Sublingual ranula. Eur Neurol. 70(5-6):329-30, 2013
                                              37. Sigismund PE et al: Management of ranula: 9 years' clinical experience in pediatric and adult patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 71(3):538-44, 2013
                                              38. Syebele K et al: The potential impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the treatment and epidemiology of ranula in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 116(1):e32-6, 2013
                                              39. Darwish C et al: A clinico-pathologic correlation. Oral ranula. J Mass Dent Soc. 61(1):40-2, 2012
                                              40. Effat KG: Acute presentation of a plunging ranula causing respiratory distress: case report. J Laryngol Otol. 126(8):861-3, 2012
                                              41. Hernandez-Martin A et al: Images in clinical medicine. Ranula. N Engl J Med. 367(26):e38, 2012
                                              42. Hze-Khoong EP et al: Submandibular gland mucocele associated with a mixed ranula. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 113(6):e6-9, 2012
                                              43. Jain R et al: Diagnostic difficulties of plunging ranula: case series. J Laryngol Otol. 126(5):506-10, 2012
                                              44. Kinoshita M et al: Plunging ranula intruding into the parapharyngeal space treated with OK-432. Am J Otolaryngol. 33(3):345-8, 2012
                                              45. Kinshuck AJ et al: Oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient: case report and literature review. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                                              46. Thimann D et al: Images in emergency medicine. 10-year-old female with a subglottic mass. Ranula. Ann Emerg Med. 60(5):668, 677, 2012
                                              47. Jia Y et al: Clinical and histopathological review of 229 cases of ranula. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 31(5):717-20, 2011
                                              48. Samant S et al: Surgery for plunging ranula: the lesson not yet learned? Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 268(10):1513-8, 2011
                                              49. Harrison JD: Modern management and pathophysiology of ranula: Literature review. Head Neck. 32(10):1310-20, 2010
                                              50. Jain P et al: Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management. Eur Radiol. 20(6):1442-9, 2010
                                              51. Clyburn VL 3rd et al: Ascending and plunging ranula in a pediatric patient. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):948-9, 2009
                                              52. Lai JB et al: Treatment of ranula using carbon dioxide laser--case series report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(10):1107-11, 2009
                                              53. Patel MR et al: Oral and plunging ranulas: what is the most effective treatment? Laryngoscope. 119(8):1501-9, 2009
                                              54. Zhi K et al: Management of the pediatric plunging ranula: results of 15 years' clinical experience. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 107(4):499-502, 2009
                                              55. Roh JL et al: Primary treatment of pediatric plunging ranula with nonsurgical sclerotherapy using OK-432 (Picibanil). Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 72(9):1405-10, 2008
                                              56. Rosa PA et al: Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):339-52, 2008
                                              57. Rho MH et al: OK-432 sclerotherapy of plunging ranula in 21 patients: it can be a substitute for surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(5):1090-5, 2006
                                              58. Haberal I et al: Surgical management of pediatric ranula. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(2):161-3, 2004
                                              59. Choi TW et al: Hydrodissection for complete removal of a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(12):946-7, 951, 2003
                                              60. Fukase S et al: Treatment of ranula wth intracystic injection of the streptococcal preparation OK-432. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 112(3):214-20, 2003
                                              61. Macdonald AJ et al: Giant ranula of the neck: differentiation from cystic hygroma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):757-61, 2003
                                              62. Onderoglu L et al: Prenatal diagnosis of ranula at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(4):399-401, 2003
                                              63. Takagi S et al: Treatment of a plunging ranula with fenestration and continuous pressure. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(6):410-3, 2003
                                              64. Woo JS et al: Recurrent plunging ranula treated with OK-432. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 260(4):226-8, 2003
                                              65. Pandit RT et al: Management of pediatric ranula. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 127(1):115-8, 2002
                                              66. Baurmash HD: Treating oral ranula: another case against blanket removal of the sublingual gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 39(3):217-20, 2001
                                              67. White DK et al: Accessory salivary tissue in the mylohyoid boutonnière: a clinical and radiologic pseudolesion of the oral cavity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(2):406-12, 2001
                                              68. Kurabayashi T et al: MRI of ranulas. Neuroradiology. 42(12):917-22, 2000
                                              69. Davison MJ et al: Plunging ranula: clinical observations. Head Neck. 20(1):63-8, 1998
                                              70. Fernandez Moya JM et al: Antenatal diagnosis and management of a ranula. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 11(2):147-8, 1998
                                              71. Ichimura K et al: Surgical management of the plunging ranula: a review of seven cases. J Laryngol Otol. 110(6):554-6, 1996
                                              72. Yoshimura Y et al: A comparison of three methods used for treatment of ranula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(3):280-2; discussion 283, 1995
                                              73. Coit WE et al: Ranulas and their mimics: CT evaluation. Radiology. 163(1):211-6, 1987
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Simple ranula (SR): Sublingual gland (SLG) mucocele, SLG mucous retention cyst
                                                            • Diving ranula (DR): Plunging ranula
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • SLG or minor salivary gland retention cyst
                                                              • Simple: True cyst confined to sublingual space (SLS)
                                                              • Diving: Extravasation pseudocyst; ruptured SR extending into submandibular space (SMS)
                                                            • Term ranula derives from Latin "rana," meaning "frog"
                                                              • Sublingual blebs in mouth of frog resemble SR

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Borkar NB et al: A rare case of congenital ranula. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 18(2):106-8, 2021
                                                                                          2. Chen JX et al: Sublingual gland excision for the surgical management of plunging ranula. Am J Otolaryngol. 39(5):497-500, 2018
                                                                                          3. Harrison JD: The pathophysiological basis and surgical management of ranula are established. World J Surg. 42(4):1208-9, 2018
                                                                                          4. Lomas J et al: Surgical management of plunging ranulas: a 10-year case series in South East Queensland. ANZ J Surg. 88(10):1043-6, 2018
                                                                                          5. Pontes FSC et al: Congenital ranula: a case report and literature review. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 42(6):454-7, 2018
                                                                                          6. Sousa Melo SL et al: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma mimicking a mucocele (ranula) in the floor of the mouth. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 47(4):20170331, 2018
                                                                                          7. Abt NB et al: Plunging ranula with prestyloid parapharyngeal space, masticator space, and parotid gland extension. B-ENT. 13(1 Suppl 27):57-60, 2017
                                                                                          8. Katabi N et al: Update from the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumours: what is new in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for tumors and tumor-like lesions of the neck and lymph nodes. Head Neck Pathol. 11(1):48-54, 2017
                                                                                          9. Kokong D et al: Ranula: current concept of pathophysiologic basis and surgical management options. World J Surg. 41(6):1476-81, 2017
                                                                                          10. Lyly A et al: Plunging ranula - patient characteristics, treatment, and comparison between different populations. Acta Otolaryngol. 137(12):1271-4, 2017
                                                                                          11. Shah Arpan K et al: Plunging ranula occurring without its oral counterpart: a case report. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 41(5):381-3, 2017
                                                                                          12. Lee JY et al: Plunging ranulas revisited: a CT study with emphasis on a defect of the mylohyoid muscle as the primary route of lesion propagation. Korean J Radiol. 17(2):264-70, 2016
                                                                                          13. Margalit I et al: Point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose a simple ranula. West J Emerg Med. 17(6):827-8, 2016
                                                                                          14. Chen CJ et al: Recurrent sublingual ranula or saliva leakage from the submandibular gland? Anatomical consideration of the ductal system of the sublingual gland. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 73(4):675.e1-7, 2015
                                                                                          15. Heller M et al: Hemorrhagic transformation of a plunging ranula: an unusual cause of a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Am J Emerg Med. 33(4):597.e3-4, 2015
                                                                                          16. Jia T et al: Minimally invasive treatment of oral ranula with a mucosal tunnel. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(2):138-41, 2015
                                                                                          17. Lee DH et al: Treatment outcomes of the intraoral approach for a simple ranula. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 119(4):e223-5, 2015
                                                                                          18. Owens DJ et al: Orthodontics: a traumatic cause of ranula. Br Dent J. 219(5):194-5, 2015
                                                                                          19. Sathanantham DK et al: Rapid development of a simple ranula in a child. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 124(4):322-5, 2015
                                                                                          20. Syebele K et al: Oral mucocele/ranula: another human immunodeficiency virus-related salivary gland disease? Laryngoscope. 125(5):1130-6, 2015
                                                                                          21. Truong K et al: Value of sialendoscopy-assisted transoral sublingual gland resection for a plunging ranula: case report and review. J Laryngol Otol. 129(5):509-12, 2015
                                                                                          22. Garofalo S et al: Successful medical treatment for ranula in children. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 117(4):e289-97, 2014
                                                                                          23. Li J et al: Correct diagnosis for plunging ranula by magnetic resonance imaging. Aust Dent J. 59(2):264-7, 2014
                                                                                          24. Mabongo M et al: Plunging ranula: an unusual multilocular presentation. SADJ. 69(9):416-8, 2014
                                                                                          25. Mun SJ et al: Ductal variation of the sublingual gland: a predisposing factor for ranula formation. Head Neck. 36(4):540-4, 2014
                                                                                          26. Yang Y et al: Surgical results of the intraoral approach for plunging ranula. Acta Otolaryngol. 134(2):201-5, 2014
                                                                                          27. Al Ruhaimi KA: Recurrent plunging ranula of the neck. Saudi Med J. 34(3):313-5, 2013
                                                                                          28. Alves TP et al: Successful management of oral ranula: a rare case in an infant. Gen Dent. 61(3):26-8, 2013
                                                                                          29. de Santana Santos T et al: Excision of ranula using injection of hydrocolloid dental impression material. J Craniofac Surg. 24(5):1859-60, 2013
                                                                                          30. Fontenot TE et al: Swelling of submandibular region. Plunging ranula. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 139(10):1073-4, 2013
                                                                                          31. Harrison JD et al: Postmortem investigation of mylohyoid hiatus and hernia: aetiological factors of plunging ranula. Clin Anat. 26(6):693-9, 2013
                                                                                          32. Lesperance MM: When do ranulas require a cervical approach? Laryngoscope. 123(8):1826-7, 2013
                                                                                          33. McKinstry S et al: Bilateral plunging ranula: two case reports and a review of the literature. N Z Med J. 126(1385):81-6, 2013
                                                                                          34. Nikitakis NG et al: Asymptomatic swelling in the floor of the mouth. Salivary duct cyst (ranula). Gen Dent. 61(1):77- 8, 2013
                                                                                          35. O'Connor R et al: The plunging ranula: diagnostic difficulties and a less invasive approach to treatment. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 42(11):1469-74, 2013
                                                                                          36. Saji N et al: A case of impaired tongue movement in an elderly person. Diagnosis: Sublingual ranula. Eur Neurol. 70(5-6):329-30, 2013
                                                                                          37. Sigismund PE et al: Management of ranula: 9 years' clinical experience in pediatric and adult patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 71(3):538-44, 2013
                                                                                          38. Syebele K et al: The potential impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the treatment and epidemiology of ranula in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 116(1):e32-6, 2013
                                                                                          39. Darwish C et al: A clinico-pathologic correlation. Oral ranula. J Mass Dent Soc. 61(1):40-2, 2012
                                                                                          40. Effat KG: Acute presentation of a plunging ranula causing respiratory distress: case report. J Laryngol Otol. 126(8):861-3, 2012
                                                                                          41. Hernandez-Martin A et al: Images in clinical medicine. Ranula. N Engl J Med. 367(26):e38, 2012
                                                                                          42. Hze-Khoong EP et al: Submandibular gland mucocele associated with a mixed ranula. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 113(6):e6-9, 2012
                                                                                          43. Jain R et al: Diagnostic difficulties of plunging ranula: case series. J Laryngol Otol. 126(5):506-10, 2012
                                                                                          44. Kinoshita M et al: Plunging ranula intruding into the parapharyngeal space treated with OK-432. Am J Otolaryngol. 33(3):345-8, 2012
                                                                                          45. Kinshuck AJ et al: Oral ranula in an HIV-positive patient: case report and literature review. BMJ Case Rep. 2012, 2012
                                                                                          46. Thimann D et al: Images in emergency medicine. 10-year-old female with a subglottic mass. Ranula. Ann Emerg Med. 60(5):668, 677, 2012
                                                                                          47. Jia Y et al: Clinical and histopathological review of 229 cases of ranula. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 31(5):717-20, 2011
                                                                                          48. Samant S et al: Surgery for plunging ranula: the lesson not yet learned? Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 268(10):1513-8, 2011
                                                                                          49. Harrison JD: Modern management and pathophysiology of ranula: Literature review. Head Neck. 32(10):1310-20, 2010
                                                                                          50. Jain P et al: Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management. Eur Radiol. 20(6):1442-9, 2010
                                                                                          51. Clyburn VL 3rd et al: Ascending and plunging ranula in a pediatric patient. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 140(6):948-9, 2009
                                                                                          52. Lai JB et al: Treatment of ranula using carbon dioxide laser--case series report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(10):1107-11, 2009
                                                                                          53. Patel MR et al: Oral and plunging ranulas: what is the most effective treatment? Laryngoscope. 119(8):1501-9, 2009
                                                                                          54. Zhi K et al: Management of the pediatric plunging ranula: results of 15 years' clinical experience. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 107(4):499-502, 2009
                                                                                          55. Roh JL et al: Primary treatment of pediatric plunging ranula with nonsurgical sclerotherapy using OK-432 (Picibanil). Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 72(9):1405-10, 2008
                                                                                          56. Rosa PA et al: Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 20(3):339-52, 2008
                                                                                          57. Rho MH et al: OK-432 sclerotherapy of plunging ranula in 21 patients: it can be a substitute for surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 27(5):1090-5, 2006
                                                                                          58. Haberal I et al: Surgical management of pediatric ranula. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 68(2):161-3, 2004
                                                                                          59. Choi TW et al: Hydrodissection for complete removal of a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 82(12):946-7, 951, 2003
                                                                                          60. Fukase S et al: Treatment of ranula wth intracystic injection of the streptococcal preparation OK-432. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 112(3):214-20, 2003
                                                                                          61. Macdonald AJ et al: Giant ranula of the neck: differentiation from cystic hygroma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(4):757-61, 2003
                                                                                          62. Onderoglu L et al: Prenatal diagnosis of ranula at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(4):399-401, 2003
                                                                                          63. Takagi S et al: Treatment of a plunging ranula with fenestration and continuous pressure. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 41(6):410-3, 2003
                                                                                          64. Woo JS et al: Recurrent plunging ranula treated with OK-432. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 260(4):226-8, 2003
                                                                                          65. Pandit RT et al: Management of pediatric ranula. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 127(1):115-8, 2002
                                                                                          66. Baurmash HD: Treating oral ranula: another case against blanket removal of the sublingual gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 39(3):217-20, 2001
                                                                                          67. White DK et al: Accessory salivary tissue in the mylohyoid boutonnière: a clinical and radiologic pseudolesion of the oral cavity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 22(2):406-12, 2001
                                                                                          68. Kurabayashi T et al: MRI of ranulas. Neuroradiology. 42(12):917-22, 2000
                                                                                          69. Davison MJ et al: Plunging ranula: clinical observations. Head Neck. 20(1):63-8, 1998
                                                                                          70. Fernandez Moya JM et al: Antenatal diagnosis and management of a ranula. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 11(2):147-8, 1998
                                                                                          71. Ichimura K et al: Surgical management of the plunging ranula: a review of seven cases. J Laryngol Otol. 110(6):554-6, 1996
                                                                                          72. Yoshimura Y et al: A comparison of three methods used for treatment of ranula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 53(3):280-2; discussion 283, 1995
                                                                                          73. Coit WE et al: Ranulas and their mimics: CT evaluation. Radiology. 163(1):211-6, 1987