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Rectal Carcinoma
Atif Zaheer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Malignant transformation of rectal mucosa

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Attenberger UI et al: Reduced and standard field-of-view diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer at 3 T-Comparison of image quality and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements. Eur J Radiol. 131:109257, 2020
                                                  2. Keller DS: Staging of locally advanced rectal cancer beyond TME. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 33(5):258-67, 2020
                                                  3. Lord AC et al: MRI-diagnosed tumour deposits and EMVI status have superior prognostic accuracy to current clinical TNM staging in rectal cancer. Ann Surg. ePub, 2020
                                                  4. Santiago I et al: The split scar sign as an indicator of sustained complete response after neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. Eur Radiol. 30(1):224-38, 2020
                                                  5. Xu H et al: Prediction model combining clinical and MR data for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2020
                                                  6. Hope TA et al: Rectal cancer lexicon: consensus statement from the society of abdominal radiology rectal & anal cancer disease-focused panel. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(11):3508-17, 2019
                                                  7. Horvat N et al: MRI of rectal cancer: tumor staging, imaging techniques, and management. Radiographics. 39(2):367-87, 2019
                                                  8. Benson AB et al: Rectal cancer, version 2.2018, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 16(7):874-901, 2018
                                                  9. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                  10. Lim SB et al: Nonoperative strategies for rectal cancer following a complete clinical response to preoperative chemoradiation: a few considerations. Oncology (Williston Park). 28(7):620-1, 2014
                                                  11. Minsky BD et al: MRI-based treatment decision making for rectal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 28(8):680-1, 2014
                                                  12. Monson JR et al: Failure of evidence-based cancer care in the United States: the association between rectal cancer treatment, cancer center volume, and geography. Ann Surg. 260(4):625-31; discussion 631-2, 2014
                                                  13. Winter D: Outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer with highly selective preoperative chemoradiotherapy--editor's comments. Br J Surg. 101(10):1298, 2014
                                                  14. Patel UB et al: Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience. J Clin Oncol. 29(28):3753-60, 2011
                                                  15. Hoffman JR et al: Carcinoma of the prostate with aggressive rectal invasion. Am Surg. 75(5):434-6, 2009
                                                  16. Platell C: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. ANZ J Surg. 79(4):275-80, 2009
                                                  17. Shen SS et al: Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 133(5):781-6, 2009
                                                  18. Silva AC et al: Evaluation of benign and malignant rectal lesions with CT colonography and endoscopic correlation. Radiographics. 26(4):1085-99, 2006
                                                  19. Stollfuss JC et al: Rectal carcinoma: high-spatial-resolution MR imaging and T2 quantification in rectal cancer specimens. Radiology. 241(1):132-41, 2006
                                                  20. Fuchsjäger MH et al: Comparison of transrectal sonography and double-contrast MR imaging when staging rectal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(2):421-7, 2003
                                                  21. Levine MS et al: Diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms at double-contrast barium enema examination. Radiology. 216(1):11-8, 2000
                                                  22. Maier AG et al: Transrectal sonography of anal sphincter infiltration in lower rectal carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 175(3):735-9, 2000
                                                  23. Winawer SJ et al: A comparison of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium enema for surveillance after polypectomy. National Polyp Study Work Group. N Engl J Med. 342(24):1766-72, 2000
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Malignant transformation of rectal mucosa

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                            • Consider

                                                                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Attenberger UI et al: Reduced and standard field-of-view diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer at 3 T-Comparison of image quality and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements. Eur J Radiol. 131:109257, 2020
                                                                                                  2. Keller DS: Staging of locally advanced rectal cancer beyond TME. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 33(5):258-67, 2020
                                                                                                  3. Lord AC et al: MRI-diagnosed tumour deposits and EMVI status have superior prognostic accuracy to current clinical TNM staging in rectal cancer. Ann Surg. ePub, 2020
                                                                                                  4. Santiago I et al: The split scar sign as an indicator of sustained complete response after neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. Eur Radiol. 30(1):224-38, 2020
                                                                                                  5. Xu H et al: Prediction model combining clinical and MR data for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2020
                                                                                                  6. Hope TA et al: Rectal cancer lexicon: consensus statement from the society of abdominal radiology rectal & anal cancer disease-focused panel. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(11):3508-17, 2019
                                                                                                  7. Horvat N et al: MRI of rectal cancer: tumor staging, imaging techniques, and management. Radiographics. 39(2):367-87, 2019
                                                                                                  8. Benson AB et al: Rectal cancer, version 2.2018, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 16(7):874-901, 2018
                                                                                                  9. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                                                                  10. Lim SB et al: Nonoperative strategies for rectal cancer following a complete clinical response to preoperative chemoradiation: a few considerations. Oncology (Williston Park). 28(7):620-1, 2014
                                                                                                  11. Minsky BD et al: MRI-based treatment decision making for rectal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 28(8):680-1, 2014
                                                                                                  12. Monson JR et al: Failure of evidence-based cancer care in the United States: the association between rectal cancer treatment, cancer center volume, and geography. Ann Surg. 260(4):625-31; discussion 631-2, 2014
                                                                                                  13. Winter D: Outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer with highly selective preoperative chemoradiotherapy--editor's comments. Br J Surg. 101(10):1298, 2014
                                                                                                  14. Patel UB et al: Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience. J Clin Oncol. 29(28):3753-60, 2011
                                                                                                  15. Hoffman JR et al: Carcinoma of the prostate with aggressive rectal invasion. Am Surg. 75(5):434-6, 2009
                                                                                                  16. Platell C: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. ANZ J Surg. 79(4):275-80, 2009
                                                                                                  17. Shen SS et al: Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 133(5):781-6, 2009
                                                                                                  18. Silva AC et al: Evaluation of benign and malignant rectal lesions with CT colonography and endoscopic correlation. Radiographics. 26(4):1085-99, 2006
                                                                                                  19. Stollfuss JC et al: Rectal carcinoma: high-spatial-resolution MR imaging and T2 quantification in rectal cancer specimens. Radiology. 241(1):132-41, 2006
                                                                                                  20. Fuchsjäger MH et al: Comparison of transrectal sonography and double-contrast MR imaging when staging rectal cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(2):421-7, 2003
                                                                                                  21. Levine MS et al: Diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms at double-contrast barium enema examination. Radiology. 216(1):11-8, 2000
                                                                                                  22. Maier AG et al: Transrectal sonography of anal sphincter infiltration in lower rectal carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 175(3):735-9, 2000
                                                                                                  23. Winawer SJ et al: A comparison of colonoscopy and double-contrast barium enema for surveillance after polypectomy. National Polyp Study Work Group. N Engl J Med. 342(24):1766-72, 2000