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Rectal Carcinoma
Douglas Rogers, MD; Ahmed Ebada Salem, MD
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Relevant anatomy

        • Routes of Spread

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • General Features

              • Microscopic Features

                IMAGING FINDINGS

                • Detection

                  • Staging

                    • Restaging

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment Options

                            REPORTING CHECKLIST

                            • Cancer Care Ontario Synoptic MR Report for Preoperative Staging

                              • T Staging

                                • N Staging

                                  • M Staging

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Duraturo F et al: Genetics, diagnosis and treatment of Lynch syndrome: old lessons and current challenges. Oncol Lett. 17(3):3048-54, 2019
                                    2. García-Figueiras R et al: Advanced imaging techniques in evaluation of colorectal cancer. Radiographics. 38(3):740-65, 2018
                                    3. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                    4. Kitajima K et al: Present and future roles of FDG-PET/CT imaging in the management of gastrointestinal cancer: an update. Nagoya J Med Sci. 79(4):527-43, 2017
                                    5. Balyasnikova S et al: Optimal imaging strategies for rectal cancer staging and ongoing management. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 17(6):32, 2016
                                    6. García-Figueiras R et al: Advanced imaging of colorectal cancer: from anatomy to molecular imaging. Insights Imaging. 7(3):285-309, 2016
                                    7. Riihimäki M et al: Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer. Sci Rep. 6:29765, 2016
                                    8. Fazeli MS et al: Rectal cancer: a review. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 29:171, 2015
                                    9. Jhaveri KS et al: MRI of rectal cancer: an overview and update on recent advances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 205(1):W42-55, 2015
                                    10. Mace AG et al: American Joint Committee on Cancer and College of American Pathologists regression grade: a new prognostic factor in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 58(1):32-44, 2015
                                    11. Matalon SA et al: Anorectal cancer: critical anatomic and staging distinctions that affect use of radiation therapy. Radiographics. 35(7):2090-107, 2015
                                    12. Qiu M et al: Pattern of distant metastases in colorectal cancer: a SEER based study. Oncotarget. 6(36):38658-66, 2015
                                    13. Aihara H et al: Diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment strategies for familial adenomatous polyposis: rationale and update. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 26(3):255-62, 2014
                                    14. Kekelidze M et al: Colorectal cancer: current imaging methods and future perspectives for the diagnosis, staging and therapeutic response evaluation. World J Gastroenterol. 19(46):8502-14, 2013
                                    15. Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E et al: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 6(3):120-8, 2013
                                    16. Fleming M et al: Colorectal carcinoma: pathologic aspects. J Gastrointest Oncol. 3(3):153-73, 2012
                                    17. Kung JW et al: Colorectal cancer: screening double-contrast barium enema examination in average-risk adults older than 50 years. Radiology. 240(3):725-35, 2006
                                    18. Davila RE et al: ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis, staging, and management of colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 61(1):1-7, 2005
                                    19. Rockey DC et al: Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet. 365(9456):305-11, 2005
                                    20. PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board: Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version 2002
                                    21. Beets-Tan RG et al: Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in prediction of tumour-free resection margin in rectal cancer surgery. Lancet. 357(9255):497-504, 2001
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    OVERVIEW

                                    • General Comments

                                      • Classification

                                        PATHOLOGY

                                        • Relevant anatomy

                                          • Routes of Spread

                                            • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                              • General Features

                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                  IMAGING FINDINGS

                                                  • Detection

                                                    • Staging

                                                      • Restaging

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment Options

                                                              REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                              • Cancer Care Ontario Synoptic MR Report for Preoperative Staging

                                                                • T Staging

                                                                  • N Staging

                                                                    • M Staging

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Duraturo F et al: Genetics, diagnosis and treatment of Lynch syndrome: old lessons and current challenges. Oncol Lett. 17(3):3048-54, 2019
                                                                      2. García-Figueiras R et al: Advanced imaging techniques in evaluation of colorectal cancer. Radiographics. 38(3):740-65, 2018
                                                                      3. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                                      4. Kitajima K et al: Present and future roles of FDG-PET/CT imaging in the management of gastrointestinal cancer: an update. Nagoya J Med Sci. 79(4):527-43, 2017
                                                                      5. Balyasnikova S et al: Optimal imaging strategies for rectal cancer staging and ongoing management. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 17(6):32, 2016
                                                                      6. García-Figueiras R et al: Advanced imaging of colorectal cancer: from anatomy to molecular imaging. Insights Imaging. 7(3):285-309, 2016
                                                                      7. Riihimäki M et al: Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer. Sci Rep. 6:29765, 2016
                                                                      8. Fazeli MS et al: Rectal cancer: a review. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 29:171, 2015
                                                                      9. Jhaveri KS et al: MRI of rectal cancer: an overview and update on recent advances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 205(1):W42-55, 2015
                                                                      10. Mace AG et al: American Joint Committee on Cancer and College of American Pathologists regression grade: a new prognostic factor in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 58(1):32-44, 2015
                                                                      11. Matalon SA et al: Anorectal cancer: critical anatomic and staging distinctions that affect use of radiation therapy. Radiographics. 35(7):2090-107, 2015
                                                                      12. Qiu M et al: Pattern of distant metastases in colorectal cancer: a SEER based study. Oncotarget. 6(36):38658-66, 2015
                                                                      13. Aihara H et al: Diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment strategies for familial adenomatous polyposis: rationale and update. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 26(3):255-62, 2014
                                                                      14. Kekelidze M et al: Colorectal cancer: current imaging methods and future perspectives for the diagnosis, staging and therapeutic response evaluation. World J Gastroenterol. 19(46):8502-14, 2013
                                                                      15. Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E et al: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 6(3):120-8, 2013
                                                                      16. Fleming M et al: Colorectal carcinoma: pathologic aspects. J Gastrointest Oncol. 3(3):153-73, 2012
                                                                      17. Kung JW et al: Colorectal cancer: screening double-contrast barium enema examination in average-risk adults older than 50 years. Radiology. 240(3):725-35, 2006
                                                                      18. Davila RE et al: ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis, staging, and management of colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 61(1):1-7, 2005
                                                                      19. Rockey DC et al: Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet. 365(9456):305-11, 2005
                                                                      20. PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board: Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version 2002
                                                                      21. Beets-Tan RG et al: Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in prediction of tumour-free resection margin in rectal cancer surgery. Lancet. 357(9255):497-504, 2001