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Red to Yellow Marrow Conversion
Arthur B. Meyers, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    TERMINOLOGY

    • Synonyms

      • Red (hematopoietic) marrow, yellow (fatty) marrow
    • Definitions

      • At birth, red marrow is present throughout entire skeleton
      • Conversion to yellow marrow begins shortly after birth
      • Reconversion from yellow to red marrow occurs secondary to variety of causes & must be distinguished from pathologic marrow infiltration

    IMAGING

    • General Features

      • MR Findings

        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

          • Imaging Recommendations

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                CLINICAL ISSUES

                • Presentation

                  Selected References

                  1. Simpson WL et al: Imaging of Gaucher disease. World J Radiol. 6(9):657-68, 2014
                  2. Boavida P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the immature skeleton. Acta Radiol. 54(9):1007-14, 2013
                  3. Guillerman RP: Marrow: red, yellow and bad. Pediatr Radiol. 43 Suppl 1:S181-92, 2013
                  4. Ording Müller LS et al: High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children. Pediatr Radiol. 41(2):221-6, 2011
                  5. Shah LM et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1298-308, 2011
                  6. Hanrahan CJ et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part 2, T1-weighted imaging-based differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1309-21, 2011
                  7. Laor T et al: MR imaging insights into skeletal maturation: what is normal? Radiology. 250(1):28-38, 2009
                  8. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants of the bone marrow at MR imaging of the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):87-96, 2009
                  9. Alyas F et al: MR imaging evaluation of the bone marrow and marrow infiltrative disorders of the lumbar spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 15(2):199-219, vi, 2007
                  10. Foster K et al: MRI of the marrow in the paediatric skeleton. Clin Radiol. 59(8):651-73, 2004
                  11. Altehoefer C et al: Extent and time course of morphological changes of bone marrow induced by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy blood stem cell donors. J Magn Reson Imaging. 14(2):141-6, 2001
                  12. Taccone A et al: MRI "road-map" of normal age-related bone marrow. I. Cranial bone and spine. Pediatr Radiol. 25(8):588-95, 1995
                  13. Taccone A et al: MRI "road-map" of normal age-related bone marrow. II. Thorax, pelvis and extremities. Pediatr Radiol. 25(8):596-606, 1995
                  14. Moore SG et al: Red and yellow marrow in the femur: age-related changes in appearance at MR imaging. Radiology. 175(1):219-23, 1990
                  Related Anatomy
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                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                  References
                  Tables

                  Tables

                  KEY FACTS

                  • Imaging

                    TERMINOLOGY

                    • Synonyms

                      • Red (hematopoietic) marrow, yellow (fatty) marrow
                    • Definitions

                      • At birth, red marrow is present throughout entire skeleton
                      • Conversion to yellow marrow begins shortly after birth
                      • Reconversion from yellow to red marrow occurs secondary to variety of causes & must be distinguished from pathologic marrow infiltration

                    IMAGING

                    • General Features

                      • MR Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Simpson WL et al: Imaging of Gaucher disease. World J Radiol. 6(9):657-68, 2014
                                  2. Boavida P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the immature skeleton. Acta Radiol. 54(9):1007-14, 2013
                                  3. Guillerman RP: Marrow: red, yellow and bad. Pediatr Radiol. 43 Suppl 1:S181-92, 2013
                                  4. Ording Müller LS et al: High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children. Pediatr Radiol. 41(2):221-6, 2011
                                  5. Shah LM et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1298-308, 2011
                                  6. Hanrahan CJ et al: MRI of spinal bone marrow: part 2, T1-weighted imaging-based differential diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(6):1309-21, 2011
                                  7. Laor T et al: MR imaging insights into skeletal maturation: what is normal? Radiology. 250(1):28-38, 2009
                                  8. Vande Berg BC et al: Normal variants of the bone marrow at MR imaging of the spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(2):87-96, 2009
                                  9. Alyas F et al: MR imaging evaluation of the bone marrow and marrow infiltrative disorders of the lumbar spine. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 15(2):199-219, vi, 2007
                                  10. Foster K et al: MRI of the marrow in the paediatric skeleton. Clin Radiol. 59(8):651-73, 2004
                                  11. Altehoefer C et al: Extent and time course of morphological changes of bone marrow induced by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy blood stem cell donors. J Magn Reson Imaging. 14(2):141-6, 2001
                                  12. Taccone A et al: MRI "road-map" of normal age-related bone marrow. I. Cranial bone and spine. Pediatr Radiol. 25(8):588-95, 1995
                                  13. Taccone A et al: MRI "road-map" of normal age-related bone marrow. II. Thorax, pelvis and extremities. Pediatr Radiol. 25(8):596-606, 1995
                                  14. Moore SG et al: Red and yellow marrow in the femur: age-related changes in appearance at MR imaging. Radiology. 175(1):219-23, 1990