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Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging
Lori Mankowski Gettle, MD, MBA, FSRU; Douglas Rogers, MD
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7

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes of Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. NCCN Guidelines - Kidney Cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/kidney.pdf. Published July 1, 2021. Accessed July 21, 2021.
                                2. Sweet DE et al: Infiltrative renal malignancies: imaging features, prognostic implications, and mimics. Radiographics. 41(2):487-508, 2021
                                3. Sites of metastasis and survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): Results from the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC). https://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/JCO.2020.38.6_suppl.642. Published 2020. Accessed July 2021.
                                4. Capitanio U et al: Epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 75(1):74-84, 2019
                                5. Delahunt B et al: Grading of renal cell carcinoma. Histopathology. 74(1):4-17, 2019
                                6. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Follow-up and Active Surveillance of Clinically Localized Renal Cell Cancer. J Am Coll Radiol. 16(11S):S399-416, 2019
                                7. Olson MC et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in renal imaging and intervention. Curr Urol Rep. 20(11):73, 2019
                                8. Posielski NM et al: Risk factors for complications and nondiagnostic results following 1,155 consecutive percutaneous core renal mass biopsies. J Urol. 201(6):1080-7, 2019
                                9. Sarungbam J et al: Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a characteristic genomic profile. Mod Pathol. 32(5):701-9, 2019
                                10. Silverman SG et al: Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses, version 2019: an update proposal and needs assessment. Radiology. 292(2):475-88, 2019
                                11. Ambani SN et al: Renal mass biopsy for the small renal mass. Urol Oncol. 36(1):4-7, 2018
                                12. Kim HS et al: Clinicopathologic significance of VHL gene alteration in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis and review. Int J Mol Sci. 19(9), 2018
                                13. Ward RD et al: 2017 AUA renal mass and localized renal cancer guidelines: imaging implications. Radiographics. 38(7):2021-33, 2018
                                14. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                15. Gupta S et al: The ABCs of BHD: an in-depth review of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(6):1291-6, 2017
                                16. Hsieh JJ et al: Renal cell carcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 3:17009, 2017
                                17. Lopes Vendrami C et al: Differentiation of solid renal tumors with multiparametric MR imaging. Radiographics. 37(7):2026-42, 2017
                                18. Dunnick NR: Renal cell carcinoma: staging and surveillance. Abdom Radiol (NY). 41(6):1079-85, 2016
                                19. Kuroda N et al: Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Pol J Pathol. 67(1):3-7, 2016
                                20. Li T et al: Multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasm of low malignant potential: a series of 76 cases. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 14(6):e553-7, 2016
                                21. Mileto A et al: Imaging the renal lesion with dual-energy multidetector CT and multi-energy applications in clinical practice: what can it truly do for you? Eur Radiol. 26(10):3677-90, 2016
                                22. Argani P: MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol. 32(2):103-13, 2015
                                23. Zhao M et al: Mucinous tubular and spindle cell renal cell carcinoma: a review of clinicopathologic aspects. Diagn Pathol. 10:168, 2015
                                24. Williamson SR et al: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: differential diagnosis and extended immunohistochemical profile. Mod Pathol. 26(5):697-708, 2013
                                25. Bianchi M et al: Distribution of metastatic sites in renal cell carcinoma: a population-based analysis. Ann Oncol. 23(4):973-80, 2012
                                26. Northrup BE et al: Hereditary renal tumor syndromes: imaging findings and management strategies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(6):1294-304, 2012
                                27. Bach AM et al: Contemporary radiologic imaging of renal cortical tumors. Urol Clin North Am. 35(4):593-604; vi, 2008
                                28. Hinshaw JL et al: Comparison of percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation for the treatment of solid renal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1159-68, 2008
                                29. Zhang J et al: Imaging of kidney cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):119-47, 2007
                                30. Blitman NM et al: Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(1):268-72, 2005
                                31. Ergen FB et al: MRI for preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma using the 1997 TNM classification: comparison with surgical and pathologic staging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):217-25, 2004
                                32. Kim JK et al: Differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma on helical CT scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(6):1499-506, 2002
                                33. Palapattu GS et al: Paraneoplastic syndromes in urologic malignancy: the many faces of renal cell carcinoma. Rev Urol. 4(4):163-70, 2002
                                34. Ramdave S et al: Clinical role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection and management of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(3):825-30, 2001
                                35. Kopka L et al: Dual-phase helical CT of the kidney: value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase for evaluation of renal lesions and preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1573-8, 1997
                                36. Yamashita Y et al: Small renal cell carcinoma: pathologic and radiologic correlation. Radiology. 184(2):493-8, 1992
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes of Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology & Surgical Features

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. NCCN Guidelines - Kidney Cancer. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/kidney.pdf. Published July 1, 2021. Accessed July 21, 2021.
                                                              2. Sweet DE et al: Infiltrative renal malignancies: imaging features, prognostic implications, and mimics. Radiographics. 41(2):487-508, 2021
                                                              3. Sites of metastasis and survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC): Results from the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC). https://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/JCO.2020.38.6_suppl.642. Published 2020. Accessed July 2021.
                                                              4. Capitanio U et al: Epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 75(1):74-84, 2019
                                                              5. Delahunt B et al: Grading of renal cell carcinoma. Histopathology. 74(1):4-17, 2019
                                                              6. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Post-Treatment Follow-up and Active Surveillance of Clinically Localized Renal Cell Cancer. J Am Coll Radiol. 16(11S):S399-416, 2019
                                                              7. Olson MC et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in renal imaging and intervention. Curr Urol Rep. 20(11):73, 2019
                                                              8. Posielski NM et al: Risk factors for complications and nondiagnostic results following 1,155 consecutive percutaneous core renal mass biopsies. J Urol. 201(6):1080-7, 2019
                                                              9. Sarungbam J et al: Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a characteristic genomic profile. Mod Pathol. 32(5):701-9, 2019
                                                              10. Silverman SG et al: Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses, version 2019: an update proposal and needs assessment. Radiology. 292(2):475-88, 2019
                                                              11. Ambani SN et al: Renal mass biopsy for the small renal mass. Urol Oncol. 36(1):4-7, 2018
                                                              12. Kim HS et al: Clinicopathologic significance of VHL gene alteration in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis and review. Int J Mol Sci. 19(9), 2018
                                                              13. Ward RD et al: 2017 AUA renal mass and localized renal cancer guidelines: imaging implications. Radiographics. 38(7):2021-33, 2018
                                                              14. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer, 2017
                                                              15. Gupta S et al: The ABCs of BHD: an in-depth review of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 209(6):1291-6, 2017
                                                              16. Hsieh JJ et al: Renal cell carcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 3:17009, 2017
                                                              17. Lopes Vendrami C et al: Differentiation of solid renal tumors with multiparametric MR imaging. Radiographics. 37(7):2026-42, 2017
                                                              18. Dunnick NR: Renal cell carcinoma: staging and surveillance. Abdom Radiol (NY). 41(6):1079-85, 2016
                                                              19. Kuroda N et al: Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Pol J Pathol. 67(1):3-7, 2016
                                                              20. Li T et al: Multilocular cystic renal cell neoplasm of low malignant potential: a series of 76 cases. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 14(6):e553-7, 2016
                                                              21. Mileto A et al: Imaging the renal lesion with dual-energy multidetector CT and multi-energy applications in clinical practice: what can it truly do for you? Eur Radiol. 26(10):3677-90, 2016
                                                              22. Argani P: MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma. Semin Diagn Pathol. 32(2):103-13, 2015
                                                              23. Zhao M et al: Mucinous tubular and spindle cell renal cell carcinoma: a review of clinicopathologic aspects. Diagn Pathol. 10:168, 2015
                                                              24. Williamson SR et al: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: differential diagnosis and extended immunohistochemical profile. Mod Pathol. 26(5):697-708, 2013
                                                              25. Bianchi M et al: Distribution of metastatic sites in renal cell carcinoma: a population-based analysis. Ann Oncol. 23(4):973-80, 2012
                                                              26. Northrup BE et al: Hereditary renal tumor syndromes: imaging findings and management strategies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(6):1294-304, 2012
                                                              27. Bach AM et al: Contemporary radiologic imaging of renal cortical tumors. Urol Clin North Am. 35(4):593-604; vi, 2008
                                                              28. Hinshaw JL et al: Comparison of percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation for the treatment of solid renal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1159-68, 2008
                                                              29. Zhang J et al: Imaging of kidney cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):119-47, 2007
                                                              30. Blitman NM et al: Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(1):268-72, 2005
                                                              31. Ergen FB et al: MRI for preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma using the 1997 TNM classification: comparison with surgical and pathologic staging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):217-25, 2004
                                                              32. Kim JK et al: Differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma on helical CT scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(6):1499-506, 2002
                                                              33. Palapattu GS et al: Paraneoplastic syndromes in urologic malignancy: the many faces of renal cell carcinoma. Rev Urol. 4(4):163-70, 2002
                                                              34. Ramdave S et al: Clinical role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection and management of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(3):825-30, 2001
                                                              35. Kopka L et al: Dual-phase helical CT of the kidney: value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase for evaluation of renal lesions and preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1573-8, 1997
                                                              36. Yamashita Y et al: Small renal cell carcinoma: pathologic and radiologic correlation. Radiology. 184(2):493-8, 1992