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Renal Cell Carcinoma
Matthew T. Heller, MD, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
        • Definitions

          • Malignant tumor arising from renal tubular epithelium

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Shinagare AB et al: Lexicon for renal mass terms at CT and MRI: a consensus of the society of abdominal radiology disease-focused panel on renal cell carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(2):703-22, 2021
                                        2. Sweet DE et al: Infiltrative renal malignancies: imaging features, prognostic implications, and mimics. Radiographics. 41(2):487-508, 2021
                                        3. King KG: Use of contrast ultrasound for renal mass evaluation. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(5):935-49, 2020
                                        4. Wang W et al: Differentiation of renal cell carcinoma subtypes through MRI-based radiomics analysis. Eur Radiol. 30(10):5738-47, 2020
                                        5. Davenport MS et al: Standardized report template for indeterminate renal masses at CT and MRI: a collaborative product of the SAR Disease-Focused Panel on Renal Cell Carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1423-9, 2019
                                        6. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® post-treatment follow-up and active surveillance of clinically localized renal cell cancer. J Am Coll Radiol. 16(11S):S399-416, 2019
                                        7. Olson MC et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in renal imaging and intervention. Curr Urol Rep. 20(11):73, 2019
                                        8. Silverman SG et al: Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses, version 2019: An update proposal and needs assessment. Radiology. 292(2):475-88, 2019
                                        9. Braunagel M et al: The role of functional imaging in the era of targeted therapy of renal cell carcinoma. World J Urol. 32(1):47-58, 2014
                                        10. Huber J et al: Preoperative decision making for renal cell carcinoma: Cystic morphology in cross-sectional imaging might predict lower malignant potential. Urol Oncol. 32(1):37.e1-6, 2014
                                        11. Alasker A et al: Small renal mass: to treat or not to treat. Curr Urol Rep. 14(1):13-8, 2013
                                        12. Corcoran AT et al: A review of contemporary data on surgically resected renal masses--benign or malignant? Urology. 81(4):707-13, 2013
                                        13. Davis IC et al: Computed tomography-guided renal tumor biopsies: tumor imaging features affecting sample adequacy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 37(2):171-5, 2013
                                        14. Karlo CA et al: MR imaging of renal cortical tumours: qualitative and quantitative chemical shift imaging parameters. Eur Radiol. 23(6):1738-44, 2013
                                        15. Kathrins M et al: Renal mass size: concordance between pathology and radiology. Curr Opin Urol. 23(5):389-93, 2013
                                        16. Notohamiprodjo M et al: Combined diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level-dependent, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for characterization and differentiation of renal cell carcinoma. Acad Radiol. 20(6):685-93, 2013
                                        17. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prognostic implications of the magnetic resonance imaging appearance in papillary renal cell carcinoma. Eur Radiol. 23(2):579-87, 2013
                                        18. Takeuchi M et al: Characteristic MRI findings of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma dedifferentiated from clear cell renal carcinoma: radiological-pathological correlation. Clin Imaging. 37(5):908-12, 2013
                                        19. Wasser EJ et al: Renal cell carcinoma containing abundant non-calcified fat. Abdom Imaging. 38(3):598-602, 2013
                                        20. Akdogan B et al: Prevalence and predictors of benign lesions in renal masses smaller than 7 cm presumed to be renal cell carcinoma. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 10(2):121-5, 2012
                                        21. Bai X et al: Renal cell carcinoma and mimics: pathologic primer for radiologists. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1289-93, 2012
                                        22. Grasso RF et al: Radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma in patients with a solitary kidney: a retrospective analysis of our experience. Radiol Med. 117(4):606-15, 2012
                                        23. Iannuccilli JD et al: Solid renal masses: effectiveness and safety of image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Abdom Imaging. 37(4):647-58, 2012
                                        24. Lim A et al: The contemporary role of renal mass biopsy in the management of small renal tumors. Front Oncol. 2:106, 2012
                                        25. Patel U et al: Imaging in the follow-up of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1266-76, 2012
                                        26. Smith AD et al: Bosniak category IIF and III cystic renal lesions: outcomes and associations. Radiology. 262(1):152-60, 2012
                                        27. Murphy G et al: The expanding role of imaging in the management of renal cell carcinoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 11(12):1871-88, 2011
                                        28. Israel GM et al: Pitfalls in renal mass evaluation and how to avoid them. Radiographics. 28(5):1325-38, 2008
                                        29. Silverman SG et al: Management of the incidental renal mass. Radiology. 249(1):16-31, 2008
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Malignant tumor arising from renal tubular epithelium

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Shinagare AB et al: Lexicon for renal mass terms at CT and MRI: a consensus of the society of abdominal radiology disease-focused panel on renal cell carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 46(2):703-22, 2021
                                                                              2. Sweet DE et al: Infiltrative renal malignancies: imaging features, prognostic implications, and mimics. Radiographics. 41(2):487-508, 2021
                                                                              3. King KG: Use of contrast ultrasound for renal mass evaluation. Radiol Clin North Am. 58(5):935-49, 2020
                                                                              4. Wang W et al: Differentiation of renal cell carcinoma subtypes through MRI-based radiomics analysis. Eur Radiol. 30(10):5738-47, 2020
                                                                              5. Davenport MS et al: Standardized report template for indeterminate renal masses at CT and MRI: a collaborative product of the SAR Disease-Focused Panel on Renal Cell Carcinoma. Abdom Radiol (NY). 44(4):1423-9, 2019
                                                                              6. Expert Panel on Urological Imaging. et al: ACR Appropriateness Criteria® post-treatment follow-up and active surveillance of clinically localized renal cell cancer. J Am Coll Radiol. 16(11S):S399-416, 2019
                                                                              7. Olson MC et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in renal imaging and intervention. Curr Urol Rep. 20(11):73, 2019
                                                                              8. Silverman SG et al: Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses, version 2019: An update proposal and needs assessment. Radiology. 292(2):475-88, 2019
                                                                              9. Braunagel M et al: The role of functional imaging in the era of targeted therapy of renal cell carcinoma. World J Urol. 32(1):47-58, 2014
                                                                              10. Huber J et al: Preoperative decision making for renal cell carcinoma: Cystic morphology in cross-sectional imaging might predict lower malignant potential. Urol Oncol. 32(1):37.e1-6, 2014
                                                                              11. Alasker A et al: Small renal mass: to treat or not to treat. Curr Urol Rep. 14(1):13-8, 2013
                                                                              12. Corcoran AT et al: A review of contemporary data on surgically resected renal masses--benign or malignant? Urology. 81(4):707-13, 2013
                                                                              13. Davis IC et al: Computed tomography-guided renal tumor biopsies: tumor imaging features affecting sample adequacy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 37(2):171-5, 2013
                                                                              14. Karlo CA et al: MR imaging of renal cortical tumours: qualitative and quantitative chemical shift imaging parameters. Eur Radiol. 23(6):1738-44, 2013
                                                                              15. Kathrins M et al: Renal mass size: concordance between pathology and radiology. Curr Opin Urol. 23(5):389-93, 2013
                                                                              16. Notohamiprodjo M et al: Combined diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level-dependent, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for characterization and differentiation of renal cell carcinoma. Acad Radiol. 20(6):685-93, 2013
                                                                              17. Rosenkrantz AB et al: Prognostic implications of the magnetic resonance imaging appearance in papillary renal cell carcinoma. Eur Radiol. 23(2):579-87, 2013
                                                                              18. Takeuchi M et al: Characteristic MRI findings of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma dedifferentiated from clear cell renal carcinoma: radiological-pathological correlation. Clin Imaging. 37(5):908-12, 2013
                                                                              19. Wasser EJ et al: Renal cell carcinoma containing abundant non-calcified fat. Abdom Imaging. 38(3):598-602, 2013
                                                                              20. Akdogan B et al: Prevalence and predictors of benign lesions in renal masses smaller than 7 cm presumed to be renal cell carcinoma. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 10(2):121-5, 2012
                                                                              21. Bai X et al: Renal cell carcinoma and mimics: pathologic primer for radiologists. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1289-93, 2012
                                                                              22. Grasso RF et al: Radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma in patients with a solitary kidney: a retrospective analysis of our experience. Radiol Med. 117(4):606-15, 2012
                                                                              23. Iannuccilli JD et al: Solid renal masses: effectiveness and safety of image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Abdom Imaging. 37(4):647-58, 2012
                                                                              24. Lim A et al: The contemporary role of renal mass biopsy in the management of small renal tumors. Front Oncol. 2:106, 2012
                                                                              25. Patel U et al: Imaging in the follow-up of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(6):1266-76, 2012
                                                                              26. Smith AD et al: Bosniak category IIF and III cystic renal lesions: outcomes and associations. Radiology. 262(1):152-60, 2012
                                                                              27. Murphy G et al: The expanding role of imaging in the management of renal cell carcinoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 11(12):1871-88, 2011
                                                                              28. Israel GM et al: Pitfalls in renal mass evaluation and how to avoid them. Radiographics. 28(5):1325-38, 2008
                                                                              29. Silverman SG et al: Management of the incidental renal mass. Radiology. 249(1):16-31, 2008