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Renal Ectopia and Agenesis
Alessandro Furlan, MD; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR; Mark D. Sugi, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Renal ectopia (RE)
            • Definitions

              • Congenital absence of one or both kidneys (agenesis)
              • Congenital anomalies of renal position or fusion due to disruption of embryologic migration

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Kubihal V et al: Unveiling the confusion in renal fusion anomalies: role of imaging. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2021
                                      2. Sarhan O et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: Diagnosis and prognosis as a single-center experience. J Pediatr Surg. 8;S0022-3468(20)30614-X, 2020
                                      3. Loganathan AK et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia in children: a review of clinical profile, surgical challenges, and outcome. J Pediatr Urol. 15(4):315-21, 2019
                                      4. Mudoni A et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: case report and review of the literature. J Ultrasound. 20(4):333-7, 2017
                                      5. Gambhir A et al: Bilateral Crossed "Unfused" Renal Ectopia. Clin Nucl Med. 40(10):805-7, 2015
                                      6. Moon EH et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and multidetector CT. Clin Nucl Med. 40(10):835-7, 2015
                                      7. Schlomer B et al: Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) syndrome should be redefined as ipsilateral renal anomalies: cases of symptomatic atrophic and dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter to obstructed hemivagina. J Pediatr Urol. 11(2):77.e1-6, 2015
                                      8. Bhatt K et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia. J Urol. 191(2):475-6, 2014
                                      9. Yin Z et al: A new subtype of crossed fused ectopia of the kidneys. Urology. 84(6):e27, 2014
                                      10. Chang PL et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cross-fused renal ectopia: does color Doppler and 3-dimensional sonography help? J Ultrasound Med. 30(4):578-80, 2011
                                      11. Gupta NP et al: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in abnormal kidneys: single-center experience. Urology. 73(4):710-4; discussion 714-5, 2009
                                      12. T├╝rkvatan A et al: Multidetector CT urography of renal fusion anomalies. Diagn Interv Radiol. 15(2):127-34, 2009
                                      13. Li J et al: Single ureteral ectopia with congenital renal dysplasia. J Urol. 170(2 Pt 1):558-9, 2003
                                      14. Gu LL et al: Crossed solitary renal ectopia. Urology. 38(6):556-8, 1991
                                      15. Hawass ND et al: Intrathoracic kidneys: report of 6 cases and a review of the literature. Eur Urol. 14(1):83-7, 1988
                                      16. Goodman JD et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: sonographic diagnosis. Urol Radiol. 8(1):13-6, 1986
                                      17. McCarthy S et al: Ultrasonography in crossed renal ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 3(3):107-12, 1984
                                      18. Hertz M et al: Crossed renal ectopia: clinical and radiological findings in 22 cases. Clin Radiol. 28(3):339-44, 1977
                                      19. Rubinstein ZJ et al: Crossed renal ectopia: angiographic findings in six cases. Am J Roentgenol. 126(5):1035-8, 1976
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Renal ectopia (RE)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Congenital absence of one or both kidneys (agenesis)
                                                  • Congenital anomalies of renal position or fusion due to disruption of embryologic migration

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Kubihal V et al: Unveiling the confusion in renal fusion anomalies: role of imaging. Abdom Radiol (NY). ePub, 2021
                                                                          2. Sarhan O et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: Diagnosis and prognosis as a single-center experience. J Pediatr Surg. 8;S0022-3468(20)30614-X, 2020
                                                                          3. Loganathan AK et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia in children: a review of clinical profile, surgical challenges, and outcome. J Pediatr Urol. 15(4):315-21, 2019
                                                                          4. Mudoni A et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: case report and review of the literature. J Ultrasound. 20(4):333-7, 2017
                                                                          5. Gambhir A et al: Bilateral Crossed "Unfused" Renal Ectopia. Clin Nucl Med. 40(10):805-7, 2015
                                                                          6. Moon EH et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and multidetector CT. Clin Nucl Med. 40(10):835-7, 2015
                                                                          7. Schlomer B et al: Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) syndrome should be redefined as ipsilateral renal anomalies: cases of symptomatic atrophic and dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter to obstructed hemivagina. J Pediatr Urol. 11(2):77.e1-6, 2015
                                                                          8. Bhatt K et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia. J Urol. 191(2):475-6, 2014
                                                                          9. Yin Z et al: A new subtype of crossed fused ectopia of the kidneys. Urology. 84(6):e27, 2014
                                                                          10. Chang PL et al: Prenatal diagnosis of cross-fused renal ectopia: does color Doppler and 3-dimensional sonography help? J Ultrasound Med. 30(4):578-80, 2011
                                                                          11. Gupta NP et al: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in abnormal kidneys: single-center experience. Urology. 73(4):710-4; discussion 714-5, 2009
                                                                          12. T├╝rkvatan A et al: Multidetector CT urography of renal fusion anomalies. Diagn Interv Radiol. 15(2):127-34, 2009
                                                                          13. Li J et al: Single ureteral ectopia with congenital renal dysplasia. J Urol. 170(2 Pt 1):558-9, 2003
                                                                          14. Gu LL et al: Crossed solitary renal ectopia. Urology. 38(6):556-8, 1991
                                                                          15. Hawass ND et al: Intrathoracic kidneys: report of 6 cases and a review of the literature. Eur Urol. 14(1):83-7, 1988
                                                                          16. Goodman JD et al: Crossed fused renal ectopia: sonographic diagnosis. Urol Radiol. 8(1):13-6, 1986
                                                                          17. McCarthy S et al: Ultrasonography in crossed renal ectopia. J Ultrasound Med. 3(3):107-12, 1984
                                                                          18. Hertz M et al: Crossed renal ectopia: clinical and radiological findings in 22 cases. Clin Radiol. 28(3):339-44, 1977
                                                                          19. Rubinstein ZJ et al: Crossed renal ectopia: angiographic findings in six cases. Am J Roentgenol. 126(5):1035-8, 1976