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Renal Stones
Alexander J. Towbin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Nephrolithiasis, nephrolith, urolithiasis, urolith, urinary stone, kidney stone, renal calculi
            • Definitions

              • Concretion in urinary system

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Tekgül S et al: European Association of Urology and European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines on paediatric urinary stone disease. Eur Urol Focus. ePub, 2021
                                    2. Marra G et al: Pediatric nephrolithiasis: a systematic approach from diagnosis to treatment. J Nephrol. 32(2):199-210, 2019
                                    3. Verhagen MV et al: Acoustic shadowing in pediatric kidney stone ultrasound: a retrospective study with non-enhanced computed tomography as reference standard. Pediatr Radiol. 49(6):777-83, 2019
                                    4. Bowen DK et al: Pediatric stone disease. Urol Clin North Am. 45(4):539-50, 2018
                                    5. Roberson NP et al: Comparison of ultrasound versus computed tomography for the detection of kidney stones in the pediatric population: a clinical effectiveness study. Pediatr Radiol. 48(7):962-72, 2018
                                    6. Scoffone CM et al: Pediatric calculi: cause, prevention and medical management. Curr Opin Urol. 28(5):428-32, 2018
                                    7. Hernandez JD et al: Current trends, evaluation, and management of pediatric nephrolithiasis. JAMA Pediatr. 169(10):964-70, 2015
                                    8. Edvardsson VO et al: Hereditary causes of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 28(10):1923-42, 2013
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Nephrolithiasis, nephrolith, urolithiasis, urolith, urinary stone, kidney stone, renal calculi
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Concretion in urinary system

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Tekgül S et al: European Association of Urology and European Society for Paediatric Urology Guidelines on paediatric urinary stone disease. Eur Urol Focus. ePub, 2021
                                                                      2. Marra G et al: Pediatric nephrolithiasis: a systematic approach from diagnosis to treatment. J Nephrol. 32(2):199-210, 2019
                                                                      3. Verhagen MV et al: Acoustic shadowing in pediatric kidney stone ultrasound: a retrospective study with non-enhanced computed tomography as reference standard. Pediatr Radiol. 49(6):777-83, 2019
                                                                      4. Bowen DK et al: Pediatric stone disease. Urol Clin North Am. 45(4):539-50, 2018
                                                                      5. Roberson NP et al: Comparison of ultrasound versus computed tomography for the detection of kidney stones in the pediatric population: a clinical effectiveness study. Pediatr Radiol. 48(7):962-72, 2018
                                                                      6. Scoffone CM et al: Pediatric calculi: cause, prevention and medical management. Curr Opin Urol. 28(5):428-32, 2018
                                                                      7. Hernandez JD et al: Current trends, evaluation, and management of pediatric nephrolithiasis. JAMA Pediatr. 169(10):964-70, 2015
                                                                      8. Edvardsson VO et al: Hereditary causes of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 28(10):1923-42, 2013