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Retroperitoneal Metastases
Matthew T. Heller, MD, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Retroperitoneal (RP) metastases (METS)
        • Definitions

          • Spread of malignancy to retroperitoneal lymph nodes and tissues

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Dauwen H et al: PET/CT in the staging of patients with a pelvic mass suspicious for ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 131(3):694-700, 2013
                                          2. Eberhardt SC et al: Oncology imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: where cancer hides. Abdom Imaging. 38(4):647-71, 2013
                                          3. Osman S et al: A comprehensive review of the retroperitoneal anatomy, neoplasms, and pattern of disease spread. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 42(5):191-208, 2013
                                          4. Goenka AH et al: Imaging of the retroperitoneum. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(2):333-55, vii, 2012
                                          5. Heller MT et al: Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space. Clin Radiol. 67(11):e31-41, 2012
                                          6. Avila NA et al: Imaging features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: diagnostic pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(4):982-6, 2011
                                          7. Paño B et al: Pathways of lymphatic spread in male urogenital pelvic malignancies. Radiographics. 31(1):135-60, 2011
                                          8. Besse B et al: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: assessing the need for postchemotherapy contralateral pulmonary resection in patients with ipsilateral complete necrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 137(2):448-52, 2009
                                          9. Ross RW et al: Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy. Clin Imaging. 33(4):301-5, 2009
                                          10. Sohaib SA et al: Prospective assessment of MRI for imaging retroperitoneal metastases from testicular germ cell tumours. Clin Radiol. 64(4):362-7, 2009
                                          11. Boran N et al: A retrospective analysis of the diameter of metastatic lymph nodes in apparently early stage endometrial cancer. Tumori. 94(5):681-5, 2008
                                          12. Casey RG et al: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon. 6(5):294-6, 2008
                                          13. Sharp DS et al: Clinical outcome and predictors of survival in late relapse of germ cell tumor. J Clin Oncol. 26(34):5524-9, 2008
                                          14. Nishino M et al: Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: CT and MR imaging findings with anatomic and pathologic diagnostic clues. Radiographics. 23(1):45-57, 2003
                                          15. Pallisa E et al: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S185-98, 2002
                                          16. Avila NA et al: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: abdominopelvic CT and US findings. Radiology. 216(1):147-53, 2000
                                          17. Vesselle HJ et al: FDG PET of the retroperitoneum: normal anatomy, variants, pathologic conditions, and strategies to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics. 18(4):805-23; discussion 823-4, 1998
                                          18. Hilton S et al: CT detection of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases in patients with clinical stage I testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: assessment of size and distribution criteria. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(2):521-5, 1997
                                          19. Jeffrey RB Jr et al: Abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(1):7-13, 1986
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Retroperitoneal (RP) metastases (METS)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Spread of malignancy to retroperitoneal lymph nodes and tissues

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Dauwen H et al: PET/CT in the staging of patients with a pelvic mass suspicious for ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 131(3):694-700, 2013
                                                                                  2. Eberhardt SC et al: Oncology imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: where cancer hides. Abdom Imaging. 38(4):647-71, 2013
                                                                                  3. Osman S et al: A comprehensive review of the retroperitoneal anatomy, neoplasms, and pattern of disease spread. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 42(5):191-208, 2013
                                                                                  4. Goenka AH et al: Imaging of the retroperitoneum. Radiol Clin North Am. 50(2):333-55, vii, 2012
                                                                                  5. Heller MT et al: Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space. Clin Radiol. 67(11):e31-41, 2012
                                                                                  6. Avila NA et al: Imaging features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: diagnostic pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196(4):982-6, 2011
                                                                                  7. Paño B et al: Pathways of lymphatic spread in male urogenital pelvic malignancies. Radiographics. 31(1):135-60, 2011
                                                                                  8. Besse B et al: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: assessing the need for postchemotherapy contralateral pulmonary resection in patients with ipsilateral complete necrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 137(2):448-52, 2009
                                                                                  9. Ross RW et al: Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) identifies occult lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients prior to salvage radiation therapy. Clin Imaging. 33(4):301-5, 2009
                                                                                  10. Sohaib SA et al: Prospective assessment of MRI for imaging retroperitoneal metastases from testicular germ cell tumours. Clin Radiol. 64(4):362-7, 2009
                                                                                  11. Boran N et al: A retrospective analysis of the diameter of metastatic lymph nodes in apparently early stage endometrial cancer. Tumori. 94(5):681-5, 2008
                                                                                  12. Casey RG et al: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon. 6(5):294-6, 2008
                                                                                  13. Sharp DS et al: Clinical outcome and predictors of survival in late relapse of germ cell tumor. J Clin Oncol. 26(34):5524-9, 2008
                                                                                  14. Nishino M et al: Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: CT and MR imaging findings with anatomic and pathologic diagnostic clues. Radiographics. 23(1):45-57, 2003
                                                                                  15. Pallisa E et al: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22 Spec No:S185-98, 2002
                                                                                  16. Avila NA et al: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: abdominopelvic CT and US findings. Radiology. 216(1):147-53, 2000
                                                                                  17. Vesselle HJ et al: FDG PET of the retroperitoneum: normal anatomy, variants, pathologic conditions, and strategies to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics. 18(4):805-23; discussion 823-4, 1998
                                                                                  18. Hilton S et al: CT detection of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases in patients with clinical stage I testicular nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: assessment of size and distribution criteria. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(2):521-5, 1997
                                                                                  19. Jeffrey RB Jr et al: Abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 146(1):7-13, 1986