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Rhabdomyosarcoma, Head and Neck
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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21

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)
            • Definitions

              • Malignant neoplasm of striated muscle
              • Most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Hosoi H: Current status of treatment for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the USA and Japan. Pediatr Int. 58(2):81-7, 2016
                                        2. Gluth MB: Rhabdomyosarcoma and other pediatric temporal bone malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):375-90, 2015
                                        3. Kubo T et al: Prognostic value of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 96(1):46-53, 2015
                                        4. Norman G et al: An emerging evidence base for PET-CT in the management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: systematic review. BMJ Open. 5(1):e006030, 2015
                                        5. Norman G et al: Mind the gap: extent of use of diffusion-weighted MRI in children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Radiol. 45(5):778-81, 2015
                                        6. Ruiz-Mesa C et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: new perspectives on therapy. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 16(6):27, 2015
                                        7. Sun X et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma: advances in molecular and cellular biology. Sarcoma. 2015:232010, 2015
                                        8. Gradoni P et al: The role of surgery in children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Surg Oncol. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                        9. Hecker RM et al: p21 Downregulation is an important component of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity and its reactivation by HDAC inhibitors enhances combination treatment. Oncogene. 29(27):3942-52, 2010
                                        10. Zevallos JP et al: Modern multimodality therapy for pediatric nonorbital parameningeal sarcomas. Head Neck. 32(11):1501-5, 2010
                                        11. Davicioni E et al: Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Pathol. 174(2):550-64, 2009
                                        12. Ognjanovic S et al: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer. 115(18):4218-26, 2009
                                        13. Sultan I et al: Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol. 27(20):3391-7, 2009
                                        14. Park JA et al: Initial Response to Treatment was Highly Associated with the Prognosis of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Retrospective Analysis of a Single Center Experience in Korea. Cancer Res Treat. 40(3):111-5, 2008
                                        15. Wharam MD et al: Failure pattern and factors predictive of local failure in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of group III patients on the third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol. 22(10):1902-8, 2004
                                        16. Breneman JC et al: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol. 21(1):78-84, 2003
                                        17. Simon JH et al: Prognostic factors in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Head Neck. 24(5):468-73, 2002
                                        18. McCarville MB et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients: the good, the bad, and the unusual. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(6):1563-9, 2001
                                        19. Castillo M et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: imaging features in two children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(3):730-3, 1993
                                        20. Yousem DM et al: Rhabdomyosarcomas in the head and neck: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. 177(3):683-6, 1990
                                        21. Latack JT et al: Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 8(2):353-9, 1987
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Malignant neoplasm of striated muscle
                                                    • Most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Hosoi H: Current status of treatment for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the USA and Japan. Pediatr Int. 58(2):81-7, 2016
                                                                              2. Gluth MB: Rhabdomyosarcoma and other pediatric temporal bone malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):375-90, 2015
                                                                              3. Kubo T et al: Prognostic value of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 96(1):46-53, 2015
                                                                              4. Norman G et al: An emerging evidence base for PET-CT in the management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: systematic review. BMJ Open. 5(1):e006030, 2015
                                                                              5. Norman G et al: Mind the gap: extent of use of diffusion-weighted MRI in children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Radiol. 45(5):778-81, 2015
                                                                              6. Ruiz-Mesa C et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: new perspectives on therapy. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 16(6):27, 2015
                                                                              7. Sun X et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma: advances in molecular and cellular biology. Sarcoma. 2015:232010, 2015
                                                                              8. Gradoni P et al: The role of surgery in children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Surg Oncol. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                              9. Hecker RM et al: p21 Downregulation is an important component of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity and its reactivation by HDAC inhibitors enhances combination treatment. Oncogene. 29(27):3942-52, 2010
                                                                              10. Zevallos JP et al: Modern multimodality therapy for pediatric nonorbital parameningeal sarcomas. Head Neck. 32(11):1501-5, 2010
                                                                              11. Davicioni E et al: Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Pathol. 174(2):550-64, 2009
                                                                              12. Ognjanovic S et al: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer. 115(18):4218-26, 2009
                                                                              13. Sultan I et al: Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol. 27(20):3391-7, 2009
                                                                              14. Park JA et al: Initial Response to Treatment was Highly Associated with the Prognosis of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Retrospective Analysis of a Single Center Experience in Korea. Cancer Res Treat. 40(3):111-5, 2008
                                                                              15. Wharam MD et al: Failure pattern and factors predictive of local failure in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of group III patients on the third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol. 22(10):1902-8, 2004
                                                                              16. Breneman JC et al: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol. 21(1):78-84, 2003
                                                                              17. Simon JH et al: Prognostic factors in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Head Neck. 24(5):468-73, 2002
                                                                              18. McCarville MB et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients: the good, the bad, and the unusual. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(6):1563-9, 2001
                                                                              19. Castillo M et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: imaging features in two children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(3):730-3, 1993
                                                                              20. Yousem DM et al: Rhabdomyosarcomas in the head and neck: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. 177(3):683-6, 1990
                                                                              21. Latack JT et al: Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 8(2):353-9, 1987