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Rhabdomyosarcoma
Bernadette L. Koch, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMSa)
            • Definitions

              • Malignant neoplasm of striated muscle; most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Hosoi H: Current status of treatment for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the USA and Japan. Pediatr Int. 58(2):81-7, 2016
                                      2. Gluth MB: Rhabdomyosarcoma and other pediatric temporal bone malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):375-90, 2015
                                      3. Kubo T et al: Prognostic value of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 96(1):46-53, 2015
                                      4. Ruiz-Mesa C et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: new perspectives on therapy. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 16(6):27, 2015
                                      5. Sun X et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma: advances in molecular and cellular biology. Sarcoma. 2015:232010, 2015
                                      6. Gradoni P et al: The role of surgery in children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Surg Oncol. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                      7. Hecker RM et al: p21 Downregulation is an important component of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity and its reactivation by HDAC inhibitors enhances combination treatment. Oncogene. 29(27):3942-52, 2010
                                      8. Zevallos JP et al: Modern multimodality therapy for pediatric nonorbital parameningeal sarcomas. Head Neck. 32(11):1501-5, 2010
                                      9. Davicioni E et al: Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Pathol. 174(2):550-64, 2009
                                      10. Ognjanovic S et al: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer. 115(18):4218-26, 2009
                                      11. Sultan I et al: Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol. 27(20):3391-7, 2009
                                      12. Park JA et al: Initial Response to Treatment was Highly Associated with the Prognosis of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Retrospective Analysis of a Single Center Experience in Korea. Cancer Res Treat. 40(3):111-5, 2008
                                      13. Wharam MD et al: Failure pattern and factors predictive of local failure in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of group III patients on the third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol. 22(10):1902-8, 2004
                                      14. Breneman JC et al: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol. 21(1):78-84, 2003
                                      15. Simon JH et al: Prognostic factors in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Head Neck. 24(5):468-73, 2002
                                      16. McCarville MB et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients: the good, the bad, and the unusual. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(6):1563-9, 2001
                                      17. Castillo M et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: imaging features in two children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(3):730-3, 1993
                                      18. Yousem DM et al: Rhabdomyosarcomas in the head and neck: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. 177(3):683-6, 1990
                                      19. Latack JT et al: Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 8(2):353-9, 1987
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMSa)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Malignant neoplasm of striated muscle; most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Hosoi H: Current status of treatment for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the USA and Japan. Pediatr Int. 58(2):81-7, 2016
                                                                          2. Gluth MB: Rhabdomyosarcoma and other pediatric temporal bone malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 48(2):375-90, 2015
                                                                          3. Kubo T et al: Prognostic value of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 96(1):46-53, 2015
                                                                          4. Ruiz-Mesa C et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: new perspectives on therapy. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 16(6):27, 2015
                                                                          5. Sun X et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma: advances in molecular and cellular biology. Sarcoma. 2015:232010, 2015
                                                                          6. Gradoni P et al: The role of surgery in children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Surg Oncol. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                          7. Hecker RM et al: p21 Downregulation is an important component of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity and its reactivation by HDAC inhibitors enhances combination treatment. Oncogene. 29(27):3942-52, 2010
                                                                          8. Zevallos JP et al: Modern multimodality therapy for pediatric nonorbital parameningeal sarcomas. Head Neck. 32(11):1501-5, 2010
                                                                          9. Davicioni E et al: Molecular classification of rhabdomyosarcoma--genotypic and phenotypic determinants of diagnosis: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Pathol. 174(2):550-64, 2009
                                                                          10. Ognjanovic S et al: Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer. 115(18):4218-26, 2009
                                                                          11. Sultan I et al: Comparing adult and pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program, 1973 to 2005: an analysis of 2,600 patients. J Clin Oncol. 27(20):3391-7, 2009
                                                                          12. Park JA et al: Initial Response to Treatment was Highly Associated with the Prognosis of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Retrospective Analysis of a Single Center Experience in Korea. Cancer Res Treat. 40(3):111-5, 2008
                                                                          13. Wharam MD et al: Failure pattern and factors predictive of local failure in rhabdomyosarcoma: a report of group III patients on the third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol. 22(10):1902-8, 2004
                                                                          14. Breneman JC et al: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol. 21(1):78-84, 2003
                                                                          15. Simon JH et al: Prognostic factors in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Head Neck. 24(5):468-73, 2002
                                                                          16. McCarville MB et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients: the good, the bad, and the unusual. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(6):1563-9, 2001
                                                                          17. Castillo M et al: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: imaging features in two children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(3):730-3, 1993
                                                                          18. Yousem DM et al: Rhabdomyosarcomas in the head and neck: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. 177(3):683-6, 1990
                                                                          19. Latack JT et al: Imaging of rhabdomyosarcomas of the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 8(2):353-9, 1987