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Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
Paula J. Woodward, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Clinical Issues

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Abbreviations

        • Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCGT)
      • Definitions

        • Neoplasm derived from all 3 germ cell layers
          • Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
        • 70-80% of all teratomas are located in sacrococcygeal area

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • Ultrasonographic Findings

          • MR Findings

            • Imaging Recommendations

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                PATHOLOGY

                • General Features

                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                              Selected References

                              1. Masahata K et al: Long-term functional outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma after resection in neonates and infants: a single-center experience. Pediatr Surg Int. 36(11):1327-32, 2020
                              2. Gebb JS et al: High tumor volume to fetal weight ratio is associated with worse fetal outcomes and increased maternal risk in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Diagn Ther. 45(2):94-101, 2019
                              3. Hambraeus M et al: Long-term outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a controlled cohort study of urinary tract and bowel dysfunction and predictors of poor outcome. J Pediatr. 198:131-6.e2, 2018
                              4. Lee SM et al: Antenatal prediction of neonatal survival in sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Ultrasound Med. 37(8):2003-9, 2018
                              5. Kremer ME et al: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of neonatal mortality in patients with sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Surg. 51(11):1826-9, 2016
                              6. Akinkuotu AC et al: Predictors of poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a multiinstitutional review. J Pediatr Surg. 50(5):771-4, 2015
                              7. Arisoy R et al: Prenatal diagnosis and outcomes of fetal teratomas. J Clin Ultrasound. 44(2):118-25, 2015
                              8. Kremer ME et al: Quality of life in adulthood after resection of a sacrococcygeal teratoma in childhood: a Dutch multicentre study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 100(3):F229-32, 2015
                              9. Coleman A et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma growth rate predicts adverse outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 49(6):985-9, 2014
                              10. Van Mieghem T et al: Minimally invasive therapy for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: case series and systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 43(6):611-9, 2014
                              11. Partridge EA et al: Urologic and anorectal complications of sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal and postnatal predictors. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):139-42; discussion 142-3, 2014
                              12. Coleman A et al: Prenatal solid tumor volume index: novel prenatal predictor of adverse outcome in sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Surg Res. 184(1):330-6, 2013
                              13. Grammatikopoulou I et al: Immature malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):437-9, 2013
                              14. Shue E et al: Tumor metrics and morphology predict poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a 25-year experience at a single institution. J Pediatr Surg. 48(6):1225-31, 2013
                              15. Draper H et al: Long-term functional results following resection of neonatal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Pediatr Surg Int. 25(3):243-6, 2009
                              16. Sy ED et al: Prognostic role of tumor-head volume ratio in fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Diagn Ther. 26(2):75-80, 2009
                              17. Makin EC et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: single-center experience (1993-2004). J Pediatr Surg. 41(2):388-93, 2006
                              18. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 25(1):215-42, 2005
                              19. Hedrick HL et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: prenatal assessment, fetal intervention, and outcome. J Pediatr Surg. 39(3):430-8; discussion 430-8, 2004
                              20. Avni FE et al: MR imaging of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: diagnosis and assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(1):179-83, 2002
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Imaging

                                • Clinical Issues

                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                  • Abbreviations

                                    • Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCGT)
                                  • Definitions

                                    • Neoplasm derived from all 3 germ cell layers
                                      • Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
                                    • 70-80% of all teratomas are located in sacrococcygeal area

                                  IMAGING

                                  • General Features

                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                      • MR Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Demographics

                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                      • Treatment

                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Masahata K et al: Long-term functional outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma after resection in neonates and infants: a single-center experience. Pediatr Surg Int. 36(11):1327-32, 2020
                                                          2. Gebb JS et al: High tumor volume to fetal weight ratio is associated with worse fetal outcomes and increased maternal risk in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Diagn Ther. 45(2):94-101, 2019
                                                          3. Hambraeus M et al: Long-term outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a controlled cohort study of urinary tract and bowel dysfunction and predictors of poor outcome. J Pediatr. 198:131-6.e2, 2018
                                                          4. Lee SM et al: Antenatal prediction of neonatal survival in sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Ultrasound Med. 37(8):2003-9, 2018
                                                          5. Kremer ME et al: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of neonatal mortality in patients with sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Surg. 51(11):1826-9, 2016
                                                          6. Akinkuotu AC et al: Predictors of poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a multiinstitutional review. J Pediatr Surg. 50(5):771-4, 2015
                                                          7. Arisoy R et al: Prenatal diagnosis and outcomes of fetal teratomas. J Clin Ultrasound. 44(2):118-25, 2015
                                                          8. Kremer ME et al: Quality of life in adulthood after resection of a sacrococcygeal teratoma in childhood: a Dutch multicentre study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 100(3):F229-32, 2015
                                                          9. Coleman A et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma growth rate predicts adverse outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 49(6):985-9, 2014
                                                          10. Van Mieghem T et al: Minimally invasive therapy for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: case series and systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 43(6):611-9, 2014
                                                          11. Partridge EA et al: Urologic and anorectal complications of sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal and postnatal predictors. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):139-42; discussion 142-3, 2014
                                                          12. Coleman A et al: Prenatal solid tumor volume index: novel prenatal predictor of adverse outcome in sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Surg Res. 184(1):330-6, 2013
                                                          13. Grammatikopoulou I et al: Immature malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):437-9, 2013
                                                          14. Shue E et al: Tumor metrics and morphology predict poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a 25-year experience at a single institution. J Pediatr Surg. 48(6):1225-31, 2013
                                                          15. Draper H et al: Long-term functional results following resection of neonatal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Pediatr Surg Int. 25(3):243-6, 2009
                                                          16. Sy ED et al: Prognostic role of tumor-head volume ratio in fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Fetal Diagn Ther. 26(2):75-80, 2009
                                                          17. Makin EC et al: Outcome of antenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: single-center experience (1993-2004). J Pediatr Surg. 41(2):388-93, 2006
                                                          18. Woodward PJ et al: From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 25(1):215-42, 2005
                                                          19. Hedrick HL et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: prenatal assessment, fetal intervention, and outcome. J Pediatr Surg. 39(3):430-8; discussion 430-8, 2004
                                                          20. Avni FE et al: MR imaging of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: diagnosis and assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(1):179-83, 2002