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Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Sacral germ cell tumor (SGT), germ cell tumor of coccyx
              • Definitions

                • Congenital sacral tumor containing elements of all 3 germ layers

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Partridge EA et al: Urologic and anorectal complications of sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal and postnatal predictors. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):139-42; discussion 142-3, 2014
                                                2. Shalaby MS et al: The long-term psychosocial outcomes following excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a national study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 99(2):F149-52, 2014
                                                3. Van Mieghem T et al: Minimally invasive therapy for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: case series and systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 43(6):611-9, 2014
                                                4. Grammatikopoulou I et al: Immature malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):437-9, 2013
                                                5. Raigani S et al: Intra-abdominal (Type IV) sacrococcygeal teratoma presenting with buttock hemangioma. Pediatr Surg Int. 29(12):1341-4, 2013
                                                6. Shue E et al: Tumor metrics and morphology predict poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a 25-year experience at a single institution. J Pediatr Surg. 48(6):1225-31, 2013
                                                7. Yoneda A et al: Impact of the histological type on the prognosis of patients with prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: the results of a nationwide Japanese survey. Pediatr Surg Int. 29(11):1119-25, 2013
                                                8. De Corti F et al: Prognosis of malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumours according to their natural history and surgical management. Surg Oncol. 21(2):e31-7, 2012
                                                9. Usui N et al: Outcomes of prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: the results of a Japanese nationwide survey. J Pediatr Surg. 47(3):441-7, 2012
                                                10. Barksdale EM Jr et al: Teratomas in infants and children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 21(3):344-9, 2009
                                                11. Draper H et al: Long-term functional results following resection of neonatal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Pediatr Surg Int. 25(3):243-6, 2009
                                                12. Jelin E et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma with spinal canal invasion prenatally diagnosed. J Pediatr Surg. 44(4):E9-11, 2009
                                                13. Axt-Fliedner R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a review of cases between 1993 and 2000. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 29(1):15-8, 2002
                                                14. Monteiro M et al: Case report: sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation in an adult female: CT and MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 75(895):620-3, 2002
                                                15. Perrelli L et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma. Outcome and management. An analysis of 17 cases. J Perinat Med. 30(2):179-84, 2002
                                                16. Paek BW et al: Radiofrequency ablation of human fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 184(3):503-7, 2001
                                                17. Holterman AX et al: The natural history of sacrococcygeal teratomas diagnosed through routine obstetric sonogram: a single institution experience. J Pediatr Surg. 33(6):899-903, 1998
                                                18. Schropp KP et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: the experience of four decades. J Pediatr Surg. 27(8):1075-8; discussion 1078-9, 1992
                                                19. Wells RG et al: Imaging of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors. Radiographics. 10(4):701-13, 1990
                                                20. Noseworthy J et al: Sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors in childhood: an updated experience with 118 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 16(3):358-64, 1981
                                                21. Schey WL et al: Clinical and radiographic considerations of sacrococcygeal teratomas: an analysis of 26 new cases and review of the literature. Radiology. 125(1):189-95, 1977
                                                22. Altman RP et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: American Academy of Pediatrics Surgical Section Survey-1973. J Pediatr Surg. 9(3):389-98, 1974
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Sacral germ cell tumor (SGT), germ cell tumor of coccyx
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Congenital sacral tumor containing elements of all 3 germ layers

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Partridge EA et al: Urologic and anorectal complications of sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal and postnatal predictors. J Pediatr Surg. 49(1):139-42; discussion 142-3, 2014
                                                                                              2. Shalaby MS et al: The long-term psychosocial outcomes following excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a national study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 99(2):F149-52, 2014
                                                                                              3. Van Mieghem T et al: Minimally invasive therapy for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: case series and systematic review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 43(6):611-9, 2014
                                                                                              4. Grammatikopoulou I et al: Immature malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma: case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 40(3):437-9, 2013
                                                                                              5. Raigani S et al: Intra-abdominal (Type IV) sacrococcygeal teratoma presenting with buttock hemangioma. Pediatr Surg Int. 29(12):1341-4, 2013
                                                                                              6. Shue E et al: Tumor metrics and morphology predict poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a 25-year experience at a single institution. J Pediatr Surg. 48(6):1225-31, 2013
                                                                                              7. Yoneda A et al: Impact of the histological type on the prognosis of patients with prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: the results of a nationwide Japanese survey. Pediatr Surg Int. 29(11):1119-25, 2013
                                                                                              8. De Corti F et al: Prognosis of malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumours according to their natural history and surgical management. Surg Oncol. 21(2):e31-7, 2012
                                                                                              9. Usui N et al: Outcomes of prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: the results of a Japanese nationwide survey. J Pediatr Surg. 47(3):441-7, 2012
                                                                                              10. Barksdale EM Jr et al: Teratomas in infants and children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 21(3):344-9, 2009
                                                                                              11. Draper H et al: Long-term functional results following resection of neonatal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Pediatr Surg Int. 25(3):243-6, 2009
                                                                                              12. Jelin E et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma with spinal canal invasion prenatally diagnosed. J Pediatr Surg. 44(4):E9-11, 2009
                                                                                              13. Axt-Fliedner R et al: Prenatal diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma: a review of cases between 1993 and 2000. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 29(1):15-8, 2002
                                                                                              14. Monteiro M et al: Case report: sacrococcygeal teratoma with malignant transformation in an adult female: CT and MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 75(895):620-3, 2002
                                                                                              15. Perrelli L et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma. Outcome and management. An analysis of 17 cases. J Perinat Med. 30(2):179-84, 2002
                                                                                              16. Paek BW et al: Radiofrequency ablation of human fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 184(3):503-7, 2001
                                                                                              17. Holterman AX et al: The natural history of sacrococcygeal teratomas diagnosed through routine obstetric sonogram: a single institution experience. J Pediatr Surg. 33(6):899-903, 1998
                                                                                              18. Schropp KP et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: the experience of four decades. J Pediatr Surg. 27(8):1075-8; discussion 1078-9, 1992
                                                                                              19. Wells RG et al: Imaging of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors. Radiographics. 10(4):701-13, 1990
                                                                                              20. Noseworthy J et al: Sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors in childhood: an updated experience with 118 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 16(3):358-64, 1981
                                                                                              21. Schey WL et al: Clinical and radiographic considerations of sacrococcygeal teratomas: an analysis of 26 new cases and review of the literature. Radiology. 125(1):189-95, 1977
                                                                                              22. Altman RP et al: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: American Academy of Pediatrics Surgical Section Survey-1973. J Pediatr Surg. 9(3):389-98, 1974