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Sarcoidosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Neurosarcoidosis
            • Definitions

              • Noncaseating granulomatous disease of spine and spinal cord

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nonvascular Interventions

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Murphy OC et al: Clinical and MRI phenotypes of sarcoidosis-associated myelopathy. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 7(4):e722, 2020
                                                2. Ben Hassine I et al: Osseous sarcoidosis: a multicenter retrospective case-control study of 48 patients. Joint Bone Spine. 86(6):789-93, 2019
                                                3. Sigaux J et al: High prevalence of spondyloarthritis in sarcoidosis patients with chronic back pain. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 49(2):246-50, 2019
                                                4. Soni N et al: Imaging findings in spinal sarcoidosis: a report of 18 cases and review of the current literature. Neuroradiol J. 32(1):17-28, 2019
                                                5. Sohn M et al: Spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Am J Med Sci. 347(3):195-8, 2014
                                                6. Nozaki K et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 15(4):492-504, 2013
                                                7. Brembilla C et al: Surgical management in spinal sarcoidosis: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E258-61, 2009
                                                8. Makino T et al: Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord. Intern Med. 48(21):1909-13, 2009
                                                9. Varron L et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: report of seven cases. Eur J Neurol. 16(3):289-96, 2009
                                                10. Beros V et al: Thoracic intramedullary sarcoidosis mimicking an intramedullary tumor. Coll Antropol. 32(2):645-7, 2008
                                                11. Boulaajaj FZ et al: [Subacute myelopathy revealing systemic sarcoidosis.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 163(11):1049-53, 2007
                                                12. Perdigão S et al: [Atypical presentation of intramedullary sarcoidosis: report of two cases.] Rev Neurol. 45(7):406-8, 2007
                                                13. Ravaglia S et al: Pathogenetic role of myelitis for syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(6):541-6, 2007
                                                14. Schaller B et al: Intradural, extramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: report of a rare case and review of the literature. Spine J. 6(2):204-10, 2006
                                                15. Smith JK et al: Imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):289-95, 2004
                                                16. Bose B: Extramedullary sarcoid lesion mimicking intraspinal tumor. Spine J. 2(5):381-5, 2002
                                                17. Dubey N et al: Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. J Neurol Sci. 205(1):77-81, 2002
                                                18. Gullapalli D et al: Neurologic manifestations of sarcoidosis. Neurol Clin. 20(1):59-83, vi, 2002
                                                19. Bode MK et al: Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 42(6):563-7, 2001
                                                20. Hayat GR et al: Solitary intramedullary neurosarcoidosis: role of MRI in early detection. J Neuroimaging. 11(1):66-70, 2001
                                                21. Maroun FB et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 28(2):163-6, 2001
                                                22. Vinas FC et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a diagnostic dilemma. Neurol Res. 23(4):347-52, 2001
                                                23. Dumas JL et al: Central nervous system sarcoidosis: follow-up at MR imaging during steroid therapy. Radiology. 214(2):411-20, 2000
                                                24. Koike H et al: Differential response to corticosteroid therapy of MRI findings and clinical manifestations in spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 247(7):544-9, 2000
                                                25. Yasui K et al: Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings and histopathology of lesion distribution of spinal cord sarcoidosis at post-mortem. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 26(5):481-7, 2000
                                                26. Christoforidis GA et al: MR of CNS sarcoidosis: correlation of imaging features to clinical symptoms and response to treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(4):655-69, 1999
                                                27. Hashmi M et al: Diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 245(3):178-80, 1998
                                                28. Jallo GI et al: Intraspinal sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Surg Neurol. 48(5):514-20; discussion 521, 1997
                                                29. Lexa FJ et al: MR of sarcoidosis in the head and spine: spectrum of manifestations and radiographic response to steroid therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):973-82, 1994
                                                30. Junger SS et al: Intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Neurology. 43(2):333-7, 1993
                                                31. Seltzer S et al: CNS sarcoidosis: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(6):1227-33, 1991
                                                32. Nesbit GM et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a new finding at MR imaging with Gd-DTPA enhancement. Radiology. 173(3):839-43, 1989
                                                33. Terunuma H et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as progressive myelopathy. Clin Neuropathol. 7(2):77-80, 1988
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Neurosarcoidosis
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Noncaseating granulomatous disease of spine and spinal cord

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Murphy OC et al: Clinical and MRI phenotypes of sarcoidosis-associated myelopathy. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 7(4):e722, 2020
                                                                                              2. Ben Hassine I et al: Osseous sarcoidosis: a multicenter retrospective case-control study of 48 patients. Joint Bone Spine. 86(6):789-93, 2019
                                                                                              3. Sigaux J et al: High prevalence of spondyloarthritis in sarcoidosis patients with chronic back pain. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 49(2):246-50, 2019
                                                                                              4. Soni N et al: Imaging findings in spinal sarcoidosis: a report of 18 cases and review of the current literature. Neuroradiol J. 32(1):17-28, 2019
                                                                                              5. Sohn M et al: Spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Am J Med Sci. 347(3):195-8, 2014
                                                                                              6. Nozaki K et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 15(4):492-504, 2013
                                                                                              7. Brembilla C et al: Surgical management in spinal sarcoidosis: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E258-61, 2009
                                                                                              8. Makino T et al: Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord. Intern Med. 48(21):1909-13, 2009
                                                                                              9. Varron L et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: report of seven cases. Eur J Neurol. 16(3):289-96, 2009
                                                                                              10. Beros V et al: Thoracic intramedullary sarcoidosis mimicking an intramedullary tumor. Coll Antropol. 32(2):645-7, 2008
                                                                                              11. Boulaajaj FZ et al: [Subacute myelopathy revealing systemic sarcoidosis.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 163(11):1049-53, 2007
                                                                                              12. Perdigão S et al: [Atypical presentation of intramedullary sarcoidosis: report of two cases.] Rev Neurol. 45(7):406-8, 2007
                                                                                              13. Ravaglia S et al: Pathogenetic role of myelitis for syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(6):541-6, 2007
                                                                                              14. Schaller B et al: Intradural, extramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: report of a rare case and review of the literature. Spine J. 6(2):204-10, 2006
                                                                                              15. Smith JK et al: Imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):289-95, 2004
                                                                                              16. Bose B: Extramedullary sarcoid lesion mimicking intraspinal tumor. Spine J. 2(5):381-5, 2002
                                                                                              17. Dubey N et al: Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. J Neurol Sci. 205(1):77-81, 2002
                                                                                              18. Gullapalli D et al: Neurologic manifestations of sarcoidosis. Neurol Clin. 20(1):59-83, vi, 2002
                                                                                              19. Bode MK et al: Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 42(6):563-7, 2001
                                                                                              20. Hayat GR et al: Solitary intramedullary neurosarcoidosis: role of MRI in early detection. J Neuroimaging. 11(1):66-70, 2001
                                                                                              21. Maroun FB et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 28(2):163-6, 2001
                                                                                              22. Vinas FC et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a diagnostic dilemma. Neurol Res. 23(4):347-52, 2001
                                                                                              23. Dumas JL et al: Central nervous system sarcoidosis: follow-up at MR imaging during steroid therapy. Radiology. 214(2):411-20, 2000
                                                                                              24. Koike H et al: Differential response to corticosteroid therapy of MRI findings and clinical manifestations in spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 247(7):544-9, 2000
                                                                                              25. Yasui K et al: Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings and histopathology of lesion distribution of spinal cord sarcoidosis at post-mortem. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 26(5):481-7, 2000
                                                                                              26. Christoforidis GA et al: MR of CNS sarcoidosis: correlation of imaging features to clinical symptoms and response to treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(4):655-69, 1999
                                                                                              27. Hashmi M et al: Diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 245(3):178-80, 1998
                                                                                              28. Jallo GI et al: Intraspinal sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Surg Neurol. 48(5):514-20; discussion 521, 1997
                                                                                              29. Lexa FJ et al: MR of sarcoidosis in the head and spine: spectrum of manifestations and radiographic response to steroid therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):973-82, 1994
                                                                                              30. Junger SS et al: Intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Neurology. 43(2):333-7, 1993
                                                                                              31. Seltzer S et al: CNS sarcoidosis: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(6):1227-33, 1991
                                                                                              32. Nesbit GM et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a new finding at MR imaging with Gd-DTPA enhancement. Radiology. 173(3):839-43, 1989
                                                                                              33. Terunuma H et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as progressive myelopathy. Clin Neuropathol. 7(2):77-80, 1988