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Sarcoidosis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Neurosarcoidosis
          • Definitions

            • Noncaseating granulomatous disease of spine and spinal cord

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nonvascular Interventions

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Sohn M et al: Spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Am J Med Sci. 347(3):195-8, 2014
                                              2. Nozaki K et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 15(4):492-504, 2013
                                              3. Brembilla C et al: Surgical management in spinal sarcoidosis: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E258-61, 2009
                                              4. Makino T et al: Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord. Intern Med. 48(21):1909-13, 2009
                                              5. Varron L et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: report of seven cases. Eur J Neurol. 16(3):289-96, 2009
                                              6. Beros V et al: Thoracic intramedullary sarcoidosis mimicking an intramedullary tumor. Coll Antropol. 32(2):645-7, 2008
                                              7. Boulaajaj FZ et al: [Subacute myelopathy revealing systemic sarcoidosis.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 163(11):1049-53, 2007
                                              8. Perdigão S et al: [Atypical presentation of intramedullary sarcoidosis: report of two cases.] Rev Neurol. 45(7):406-8, 2007
                                              9. Ravaglia S et al: Pathogenetic role of myelitis for syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(6):541-6, 2007
                                              10. Schaller B et al: Intradural, extramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: report of a rare case and review of the literature. Spine J. 6(2):204-10, 2006
                                              11. Smith JK et al: Imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):289-95, 2004
                                              12. Bose B: Extramedullary sarcoid lesion mimicking intraspinal tumor. Spine J. 2(5):381-5, 2002
                                              13. Dubey N et al: Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. J Neurol Sci. 205(1):77-81, 2002
                                              14. Gullapalli D et al: Neurologic manifestations of sarcoidosis. Neurol Clin. 20(1):59-83, vi, 2002
                                              15. Bode MK et al: Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 42(6):563-7, 2001
                                              16. Hayat GR et al: Solitary intramedullary neurosarcoidosis: role of MRI in early detection. J Neuroimaging. 11(1):66-70, 2001
                                              17. Maroun FB et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 28(2):163-6, 2001
                                              18. Vinas FC et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a diagnostic dilemma. Neurol Res. 23(4):347-52, 2001
                                              19. Dumas JL et al: Central nervous system sarcoidosis: follow-up at MR imaging during steroid therapy. Radiology. 214(2):411-20, 2000
                                              20. Koike H et al: Differential response to corticosteroid therapy of MRI findings and clinical manifestations in spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 247(7):544-9, 2000
                                              21. Yasui K et al: Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings and histopathology of lesion distribution of spinal cord sarcoidosis at post-mortem. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 26(5):481-7, 2000
                                              22. Christoforidis GA et al: MR of CNS sarcoidosis: correlation of imaging features to clinical symptoms and response to treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(4):655-69, 1999
                                              23. Hashmi M et al: Diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 245(3):178-80, 1998
                                              24. Jallo GI et al: Intraspinal sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Surg Neurol. 48(5):514-20; discussion 521, 1997
                                              25. Lexa FJ et al: MR of sarcoidosis in the head and spine: spectrum of manifestations and radiographic response to steroid therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):973-82, 1994
                                              26. Junger SS et al: Intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Neurology. 43(2):333-7, 1993
                                              27. Seltzer S et al: CNS sarcoidosis: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(6):1227-33, 1991
                                              28. Nesbit GM et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a new finding at MR imaging with Gd-DTPA enhancement. Radiology. 173(3):839-43, 1989
                                              29. Terunuma H et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as progressive myelopathy. Clin Neuropathol. 7(2):77-80, 1988
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Neurosarcoidosis
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Noncaseating granulomatous disease of spine and spinal cord

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Sohn M et al: Spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Am J Med Sci. 347(3):195-8, 2014
                                                                                          2. Nozaki K et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 15(4):492-504, 2013
                                                                                          3. Brembilla C et al: Surgical management in spinal sarcoidosis: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):E258-61, 2009
                                                                                          4. Makino T et al: Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord. Intern Med. 48(21):1909-13, 2009
                                                                                          5. Varron L et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: report of seven cases. Eur J Neurol. 16(3):289-96, 2009
                                                                                          6. Beros V et al: Thoracic intramedullary sarcoidosis mimicking an intramedullary tumor. Coll Antropol. 32(2):645-7, 2008
                                                                                          7. Boulaajaj FZ et al: [Subacute myelopathy revealing systemic sarcoidosis.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 163(11):1049-53, 2007
                                                                                          8. Perdigão S et al: [Atypical presentation of intramedullary sarcoidosis: report of two cases.] Rev Neurol. 45(7):406-8, 2007
                                                                                          9. Ravaglia S et al: Pathogenetic role of myelitis for syringomyelia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(6):541-6, 2007
                                                                                          10. Schaller B et al: Intradural, extramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: report of a rare case and review of the literature. Spine J. 6(2):204-10, 2006
                                                                                          11. Smith JK et al: Imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):289-95, 2004
                                                                                          12. Bose B: Extramedullary sarcoid lesion mimicking intraspinal tumor. Spine J. 2(5):381-5, 2002
                                                                                          13. Dubey N et al: Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. J Neurol Sci. 205(1):77-81, 2002
                                                                                          14. Gullapalli D et al: Neurologic manifestations of sarcoidosis. Neurol Clin. 20(1):59-83, vi, 2002
                                                                                          15. Bode MK et al: Isolated neurosarcoidosis - MR findings and pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 42(6):563-7, 2001
                                                                                          16. Hayat GR et al: Solitary intramedullary neurosarcoidosis: role of MRI in early detection. J Neuroimaging. 11(1):66-70, 2001
                                                                                          17. Maroun FB et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 28(2):163-6, 2001
                                                                                          18. Vinas FC et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a diagnostic dilemma. Neurol Res. 23(4):347-52, 2001
                                                                                          19. Dumas JL et al: Central nervous system sarcoidosis: follow-up at MR imaging during steroid therapy. Radiology. 214(2):411-20, 2000
                                                                                          20. Koike H et al: Differential response to corticosteroid therapy of MRI findings and clinical manifestations in spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 247(7):544-9, 2000
                                                                                          21. Yasui K et al: Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings and histopathology of lesion distribution of spinal cord sarcoidosis at post-mortem. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 26(5):481-7, 2000
                                                                                          22. Christoforidis GA et al: MR of CNS sarcoidosis: correlation of imaging features to clinical symptoms and response to treatment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(4):655-69, 1999
                                                                                          23. Hashmi M et al: Diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary spinal cord sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 245(3):178-80, 1998
                                                                                          24. Jallo GI et al: Intraspinal sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Surg Neurol. 48(5):514-20; discussion 521, 1997
                                                                                          25. Lexa FJ et al: MR of sarcoidosis in the head and spine: spectrum of manifestations and radiographic response to steroid therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 15(5):973-82, 1994
                                                                                          26. Junger SS et al: Intramedullary spinal sarcoidosis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Neurology. 43(2):333-7, 1993
                                                                                          27. Seltzer S et al: CNS sarcoidosis: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 12(6):1227-33, 1991
                                                                                          28. Nesbit GM et al: Spinal cord sarcoidosis: a new finding at MR imaging with Gd-DTPA enhancement. Radiology. 173(3):839-43, 1989
                                                                                          29. Terunuma H et al: Sarcoidosis presenting as progressive myelopathy. Clin Neuropathol. 7(2):77-80, 1988