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Scalp and Skull Injuries
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Scalp swelling, soft tissue swelling, scalp hematoma
        • Definitions

          • Scalp injuries: Lacerations, hematomas
            • Laceration: Focal discontinuity in scalp
              • Variable extent and thickness
              • Foreign bodies, subcutaneous air common
            • Hematoma: Hemorrhage in or between scalp layers (usually subgaleal)
          • Skull injuries: Fractures

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Etiology and Epidemiology

                          • Natural History and Prognosis

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Consider

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                Selected References

                                1. Blanc F et al: Early needle aspiration of large infant cephalohematoma: a safe procedure to avoid esthetic complications. Eur J Pediatr. 179(2):265-9, 2020
                                2. Bowens JP et al: Subgaleal hemorrhage secondary to child physical abuse in a 4-year-old boy. Pediatr Emerg Care. ePub, 2020
                                3. Kandemirli SG et al: Temporal evolution of imaging findings in ossified cephalohematoma. J Craniofac Surg. ePub, 2020
                                4. Levin G et al: Neonatal subgaleal hemorrhage unrelated to assisted vaginal delivery: clinical course and outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 301(1):93-9, 2020
                                5. Levin G et al: Risk factors associated with subgaleal hemorrhage in neonates exposed to vacuum extraction. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 98(11):1464-72, 2019
                                6. Assad M et al: Early recognition and management of fetal head trauma with massive subgaleal hemorrhage. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 11(4):433-8, 2018
                                7. Lee SJ et al: The clinical characteristics and prognosis of subgaleal hemorrhage in newborn. Korean J Pediatr. 61(12):387-91, 2018
                                8. Eseonu CI et al: Early surgical intervention for a large newborn cephalohematoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 51(4):210-3, 2016
                                9. Kichari JR et al: Massive traumatic subgaleal haematoma. Emerg Med J. 30(4):344, 2013
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Imaging

                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Scalp swelling, soft tissue swelling, scalp hematoma
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Scalp injuries: Lacerations, hematomas
                                          • Laceration: Focal discontinuity in scalp
                                            • Variable extent and thickness
                                            • Foreign bodies, subcutaneous air common
                                          • Hematoma: Hemorrhage in or between scalp layers (usually subgaleal)
                                        • Skull injuries: Fractures

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                    • Presentation

                                                      • Etiology and Epidemiology

                                                        • Natural History and Prognosis

                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                          • Consider

                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Blanc F et al: Early needle aspiration of large infant cephalohematoma: a safe procedure to avoid esthetic complications. Eur J Pediatr. 179(2):265-9, 2020
                                                              2. Bowens JP et al: Subgaleal hemorrhage secondary to child physical abuse in a 4-year-old boy. Pediatr Emerg Care. ePub, 2020
                                                              3. Kandemirli SG et al: Temporal evolution of imaging findings in ossified cephalohematoma. J Craniofac Surg. ePub, 2020
                                                              4. Levin G et al: Neonatal subgaleal hemorrhage unrelated to assisted vaginal delivery: clinical course and outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 301(1):93-9, 2020
                                                              5. Levin G et al: Risk factors associated with subgaleal hemorrhage in neonates exposed to vacuum extraction. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 98(11):1464-72, 2019
                                                              6. Assad M et al: Early recognition and management of fetal head trauma with massive subgaleal hemorrhage. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 11(4):433-8, 2018
                                                              7. Lee SJ et al: The clinical characteristics and prognosis of subgaleal hemorrhage in newborn. Korean J Pediatr. 61(12):387-91, 2018
                                                              8. Eseonu CI et al: Early surgical intervention for a large newborn cephalohematoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 51(4):210-3, 2016
                                                              9. Kichari JR et al: Massive traumatic subgaleal haematoma. Emerg Med J. 30(4):344, 2013