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Schwannoma
Stephanie A. Bernard, MD; Catherine C. Roberts, MD; B. J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Neurilemoma
          • Definitions

            • Encapsulated, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor typically located eccentrically along nerve

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Dewey BJ et al: FDG PET/CT and MRI features of pathologically proven schwannomas. Clin Nucl Med. 46(4):289-96, 2021
                                        2. Garner HW et al: Epithelioid schwannoma: imaging findings on radiographs, MRI, and ultrasound. Skeletal Radiol. 48(11):1815-20, 2019
                                        3. Park JE: Long-term natural history of a neuromuscular choristoma of the sciatic nerve: a case report and literature review. Clin Imaging. 55:18-22, 2019
                                        4. Boré P et al: False positive 18F-FDG positron emission tomography findings in schwannoma-a caution for reporting physicians. Front Med (Lausanne). 5:275, 2018
                                        5. Broski SM et al: Fibromatosis associated with neuromuscular choristoma: evaluation by FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 42(3):e168-70, 2017
                                        6. Chrisinger JSA et al: Synovial sarcoma of peripheral nerves: analysis of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 41(8):1087-96, 2017
                                        7. Crist J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of schwannomas from head to toe: a pictorial review. J Clin Imaging Sci. 7:38, 2017
                                        8. Khoo M et al: Melanotic schwannoma: an 11-year case series. Skeletal Radiol. 45(1):29-34, 2016
                                        9. Kakkar C et al: Telltale signs of peripheral neurogenic tumors on magnetic resonance imaging. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(4):453-8, 2015
                                        10. Ahlawat S et al: Schwannoma in neurofibromatosis type 1: a pitfall for detecting malignancy by metabolic imaging. Skeletal Radiol. 42(9):1317-22, 2013
                                        11. Kashima TG et al: Intraosseous schwannoma in schwannomatosis. Skeletal Radiol. 42(12):1665-71, 2013
                                        12. Koontz NA et al: Schwannomatosis: the overlooked neurofibromatosis? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):W646-53, 2013
                                        13. Niederhauser BD et al: Neuromuscular choristoma: characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings and association with post-biopsy fibromatosis. Skeletal Radiol. 42(4):567-77, 2013
                                        14. Lee YS et al: Ancient schwannoma of the thigh mimicking a malignant tumour: a report of two cases, with emphasis on MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 83(991):e154-7, 2010
                                        15. Hamada K et al: (18)F-FDG PET analysis of schwannoma: increase of SUVmax in the delayed scan is correlated with elevated VEGF/VPF expression in the tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 38(3):261-6, 2009
                                        16. Weiss SW et al: Benign tumors of peripheral nerves In Weiss SW et al: Enzinger and Weiss' Soft Tissue Tumors. 5th ed. Elsevier. 853-69, 2008
                                        17. Kransdorf MJ et al: Neurogenic tumors. In Kransdorf MJ et al: Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 334, 338-4, 2006
                                        18. Beaman FD et al: Schwannoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24(5):1477-81, 2004
                                        19. Beaulieu S et al: Positron emission tomography of schwannomas: emphasizing its potential in preoperative planning. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(4):971-4, 2004
                                        20. Isobe K et al: Imaging of ancient schwannoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):331-6, 2004
                                        21. Lee JA et al: Peripheral schwannoma lacking enhancement on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):534-5, 2004
                                        22. Reynolds DL Jr et al: Sonographic characteristics of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(3):741-4, 2004
                                        23. Katsumi K et al: Plexiform schwannoma of the forearm. Skeletal Radiol. 32(12):719-23, 2003
                                        24. Mutema GK et al: Intraosseous schwannoma of the humerus. Skeletal Radiol. 31(7):419-21, 2002
                                        25. Verma RR et al: Subperiosteal schwannomas of the femur. Skeletal Radiol. 31(7):422-5, 2002
                                        26. Alberghini M et al: Cellular schwannoma: a benign neoplasm sometimes overdiagnosed as sarcoma. Skeletal Radiol. 30(6):350-3, 2001
                                        27. Lin J et al: Cross-sectional imaging of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: characteristic signs on CT, MR imaging, and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(1):75-82, 2001
                                        28. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of musculoskeletal neurogenic tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 19(5):1253-80, 1999
                                        29. Ogose A et al: Tumors of peripheral nerves: correlation of symptoms, clinical signs, imaging features, and histologic diagnosis. Skeletal Radiol. 28(4):183-8, 1999
                                        30. Stull MA et al: Magnetic resonance appearance of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 20(1):9-14, 1991
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Neurilemoma
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Encapsulated, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor typically located eccentrically along nerve

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Dewey BJ et al: FDG PET/CT and MRI features of pathologically proven schwannomas. Clin Nucl Med. 46(4):289-96, 2021
                                                                              2. Garner HW et al: Epithelioid schwannoma: imaging findings on radiographs, MRI, and ultrasound. Skeletal Radiol. 48(11):1815-20, 2019
                                                                              3. Park JE: Long-term natural history of a neuromuscular choristoma of the sciatic nerve: a case report and literature review. Clin Imaging. 55:18-22, 2019
                                                                              4. Boré P et al: False positive 18F-FDG positron emission tomography findings in schwannoma-a caution for reporting physicians. Front Med (Lausanne). 5:275, 2018
                                                                              5. Broski SM et al: Fibromatosis associated with neuromuscular choristoma: evaluation by FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med. 42(3):e168-70, 2017
                                                                              6. Chrisinger JSA et al: Synovial sarcoma of peripheral nerves: analysis of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 41(8):1087-96, 2017
                                                                              7. Crist J et al: Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of schwannomas from head to toe: a pictorial review. J Clin Imaging Sci. 7:38, 2017
                                                                              8. Khoo M et al: Melanotic schwannoma: an 11-year case series. Skeletal Radiol. 45(1):29-34, 2016
                                                                              9. Kakkar C et al: Telltale signs of peripheral neurogenic tumors on magnetic resonance imaging. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 25(4):453-8, 2015
                                                                              10. Ahlawat S et al: Schwannoma in neurofibromatosis type 1: a pitfall for detecting malignancy by metabolic imaging. Skeletal Radiol. 42(9):1317-22, 2013
                                                                              11. Kashima TG et al: Intraosseous schwannoma in schwannomatosis. Skeletal Radiol. 42(12):1665-71, 2013
                                                                              12. Koontz NA et al: Schwannomatosis: the overlooked neurofibromatosis? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(6):W646-53, 2013
                                                                              13. Niederhauser BD et al: Neuromuscular choristoma: characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings and association with post-biopsy fibromatosis. Skeletal Radiol. 42(4):567-77, 2013
                                                                              14. Lee YS et al: Ancient schwannoma of the thigh mimicking a malignant tumour: a report of two cases, with emphasis on MRI findings. Br J Radiol. 83(991):e154-7, 2010
                                                                              15. Hamada K et al: (18)F-FDG PET analysis of schwannoma: increase of SUVmax in the delayed scan is correlated with elevated VEGF/VPF expression in the tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 38(3):261-6, 2009
                                                                              16. Weiss SW et al: Benign tumors of peripheral nerves In Weiss SW et al: Enzinger and Weiss' Soft Tissue Tumors. 5th ed. Elsevier. 853-69, 2008
                                                                              17. Kransdorf MJ et al: Neurogenic tumors. In Kransdorf MJ et al: Imaging of Soft Tissue Tumors. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 334, 338-4, 2006
                                                                              18. Beaman FD et al: Schwannoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24(5):1477-81, 2004
                                                                              19. Beaulieu S et al: Positron emission tomography of schwannomas: emphasizing its potential in preoperative planning. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(4):971-4, 2004
                                                                              20. Isobe K et al: Imaging of ancient schwannoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(2):331-6, 2004
                                                                              21. Lee JA et al: Peripheral schwannoma lacking enhancement on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):534-5, 2004
                                                                              22. Reynolds DL Jr et al: Sonographic characteristics of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(3):741-4, 2004
                                                                              23. Katsumi K et al: Plexiform schwannoma of the forearm. Skeletal Radiol. 32(12):719-23, 2003
                                                                              24. Mutema GK et al: Intraosseous schwannoma of the humerus. Skeletal Radiol. 31(7):419-21, 2002
                                                                              25. Verma RR et al: Subperiosteal schwannomas of the femur. Skeletal Radiol. 31(7):422-5, 2002
                                                                              26. Alberghini M et al: Cellular schwannoma: a benign neoplasm sometimes overdiagnosed as sarcoma. Skeletal Radiol. 30(6):350-3, 2001
                                                                              27. Lin J et al: Cross-sectional imaging of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: characteristic signs on CT, MR imaging, and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 176(1):75-82, 2001
                                                                              28. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of musculoskeletal neurogenic tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 19(5):1253-80, 1999
                                                                              29. Ogose A et al: Tumors of peripheral nerves: correlation of symptoms, clinical signs, imaging features, and histologic diagnosis. Skeletal Radiol. 28(4):183-8, 1999
                                                                              30. Stull MA et al: Magnetic resonance appearance of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 20(1):9-14, 1991