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Scoliosis, Idiopathic
Julia R. Crim, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Scoliosis of undetermined etiology, without underlying bony or neuromuscular abnormalities
                • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
                • Secondary curvature: 1 more compensatory curvature above or below primary curvature
                • Flexible curvature: Curvature that resolves when patient bends to contralateral side
                • Structural curvature: Curvature that does not change when patient bends to contralateral side

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Pahys JM et al: Intraspinal anomalies in infantile idiopathic scoliosis: prevalence and role of magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(12):E434-8, 2009
                                              2. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                              3. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                              4. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                              5. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                              6. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                              7. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                              8. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                              9. Cordover AM et al: Natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. J Spinal Disord. 10(3):193-6, 1997
                                              10. Lee CS et al: The crankshaft phenomenon after posterior Harrington fusion in skeletally immature patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar idiopathic scoliosis followed to maturity. Spine. 22(1):58-67, 1997
                                              11. Little DG et al: The Risser sign: a critical analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 14(5):569-75, 1994
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Scoliosis of undetermined etiology, without underlying bony or neuromuscular abnormalities
                                                            • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
                                                            • Secondary curvature: 1 more compensatory curvature above or below primary curvature
                                                            • Flexible curvature: Curvature that resolves when patient bends to contralateral side
                                                            • Structural curvature: Curvature that does not change when patient bends to contralateral side

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Pahys JM et al: Intraspinal anomalies in infantile idiopathic scoliosis: prevalence and role of magnetic resonance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(12):E434-8, 2009
                                                                                          2. Bagchi K et al: Hardware complications in scoliosis surgery. Pediatr Radiol. 32(7):465-75, 2002
                                                                                          3. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                                                                          4. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                                                                          5. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                                                                          6. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                                                                          7. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                                                                          8. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                                                                          9. Cordover AM et al: Natural history of adolescent thoracolumbar and lumbar idiopathic scoliosis into adulthood. J Spinal Disord. 10(3):193-6, 1997
                                                                                          10. Lee CS et al: The crankshaft phenomenon after posterior Harrington fusion in skeletally immature patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar idiopathic scoliosis followed to maturity. Spine. 22(1):58-67, 1997
                                                                                          11. Little DG et al: The Risser sign: a critical analysis. J Pediatr Orthop. 14(5):569-75, 1994