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Scoliosis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • General term for any lateral spine curvature
              • Dextroscoliosis: Curve convex to right
              • Levoscoliosis: Curve convex to left
              • Kyphoscoliosis: Scoliosis with component of kyphosis
              • Rotoscoliosis: Scoliosis which includes rotation of vertebrae
              • S-curve scoliosis: 2 adjacent curves, 1 to right and 1 to left
              • C-curve scoliosis: Single curve
              • Terminal vertebra: Most superior or inferior vertebra included in curve
              • Transitional vertebra: Vertebra between 2 curves
              • Apical vertebra: Vertebra with greatest lateral displacement from midline
              • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
              • Secondary or compensatory curvature: Smaller curve which balances primary curvature

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Staging, Grading, or Classification Criteria

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Ahmed R et al: Long-term incidence and risk factors for development of spinal deformity following resection of pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(6):613-21, 2014
                                        2. Harris JA et al: A comprehensive review of thoracic deformity parameters in scoliosis. Eur Spine J. ePub, 2014
                                        3. Karami M et al: Evaluation of coronal shift as an indicator of neuroaxial abnormalities in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective study. Scoliosis. 9:9, 2014
                                        4. Parnell SE et al: Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR): a review of indications, normal radiographic appearance and complications. Pediatr Radiol. ePub, 2014
                                        5. Presciutti SM et al: Management decisions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis significantly affect patient radiation exposure. Spine J. 14(9):1984-90, 2014
                                        6. Waldt S et al: Measurements and classifications in spine imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 18(3):219-27, 2014
                                        7. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                        8. Daffner SD et al: Adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 32(2):77-82; discussion 82, 2003
                                        9. Ahn UM et al: The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 31(7):387-95, 2002
                                        10. Berven S et al: Neuromuscular scoliosis: causes of deformity and principles for evaluation and management. Semin Neurol. 22(2):167-78, 2002
                                        11. Cassar-Pullicino VN et al: Imaging in scoliosis: what, why and how? Clin Radiol. 57(7):543-62, 2002
                                        12. Do T: Orthopedic management of the muscular dystrophies. Curr Opin Pediatr. 14(1):50-3, 2002
                                        13. Geijer H: Radiation dose and image quality in diagnostic radiology. Optimization of the dose-image quality relationship with clinical experience from scoliosis radiography, coronary intervention and a flat-panel digital detector. Acta Radiol Suppl. 43(427):1-43, 2002
                                        14. Jones KB et al: Spine deformity correction in Marfan syndrome. Spine. 27(18):2003-12, 2002
                                        15. Lenke LG et al: Curve prevalence of a new classification of operative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: does classification correlate with treatment? Spine. 27(6):604-11, 2002
                                        16. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                        17. Thomson JD et al: Scoliosis in cerebral palsy: an overview and recent results. J Pediatr Orthop B. 10(1):6-9, 2001
                                        18. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                        19. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                        20. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                        21. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                        22. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                        23. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                        24. Kim HW et al: Spine update. The management of scoliosis in neurofibromatosis. Spine. 22(23):2770-6, 1997
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • General term for any lateral spine curvature
                                                    • Dextroscoliosis: Curve convex to right
                                                    • Levoscoliosis: Curve convex to left
                                                    • Kyphoscoliosis: Scoliosis with component of kyphosis
                                                    • Rotoscoliosis: Scoliosis which includes rotation of vertebrae
                                                    • S-curve scoliosis: 2 adjacent curves, 1 to right and 1 to left
                                                    • C-curve scoliosis: Single curve
                                                    • Terminal vertebra: Most superior or inferior vertebra included in curve
                                                    • Transitional vertebra: Vertebra between 2 curves
                                                    • Apical vertebra: Vertebra with greatest lateral displacement from midline
                                                    • Primary curvature: Curvature with greatest angulation
                                                    • Secondary or compensatory curvature: Smaller curve which balances primary curvature

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Staging, Grading, or Classification Criteria

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Ahmed R et al: Long-term incidence and risk factors for development of spinal deformity following resection of pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(6):613-21, 2014
                                                                              2. Harris JA et al: A comprehensive review of thoracic deformity parameters in scoliosis. Eur Spine J. ePub, 2014
                                                                              3. Karami M et al: Evaluation of coronal shift as an indicator of neuroaxial abnormalities in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective study. Scoliosis. 9:9, 2014
                                                                              4. Parnell SE et al: Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR): a review of indications, normal radiographic appearance and complications. Pediatr Radiol. ePub, 2014
                                                                              5. Presciutti SM et al: Management decisions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis significantly affect patient radiation exposure. Spine J. 14(9):1984-90, 2014
                                                                              6. Waldt S et al: Measurements and classifications in spine imaging. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 18(3):219-27, 2014
                                                                              7. Arlet V et al: Congenital scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 12(5):456-63, 2003
                                                                              8. Daffner SD et al: Adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 32(2):77-82; discussion 82, 2003
                                                                              9. Ahn UM et al: The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Am J Orthop. 31(7):387-95, 2002
                                                                              10. Berven S et al: Neuromuscular scoliosis: causes of deformity and principles for evaluation and management. Semin Neurol. 22(2):167-78, 2002
                                                                              11. Cassar-Pullicino VN et al: Imaging in scoliosis: what, why and how? Clin Radiol. 57(7):543-62, 2002
                                                                              12. Do T: Orthopedic management of the muscular dystrophies. Curr Opin Pediatr. 14(1):50-3, 2002
                                                                              13. Geijer H: Radiation dose and image quality in diagnostic radiology. Optimization of the dose-image quality relationship with clinical experience from scoliosis radiography, coronary intervention and a flat-panel digital detector. Acta Radiol Suppl. 43(427):1-43, 2002
                                                                              14. Jones KB et al: Spine deformity correction in Marfan syndrome. Spine. 27(18):2003-12, 2002
                                                                              15. Lenke LG et al: Curve prevalence of a new classification of operative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: does classification correlate with treatment? Spine. 27(6):604-11, 2002
                                                                              16. Redla S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of scoliosis. Clin Radiol. 56(5):360-71, 2001
                                                                              17. Thomson JD et al: Scoliosis in cerebral palsy: an overview and recent results. J Pediatr Orthop B. 10(1):6-9, 2001
                                                                              18. Jaskwhich D et al: Congenital scoliosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 12(1):61-6, 2000
                                                                              19. Lowe TG et al: Etiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 82-A(8):1157-68, 2000
                                                                              20. Mohaideen A et al: Not all rods are Harrington - an overview of spinal instrumentation in scoliosis treatment. Pediatr Radiol. 30(2):110-8, 2000
                                                                              21. Roach JW: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 30(3):353-65, vii-viii, 1999
                                                                              22. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. Skeletal Radiol. 27(11):591-605, 1998
                                                                              23. Oestreich AE et al: Scoliosis circa 2000: radiologic imaging perspective. II. Treatment and follow-up. Skeletal Radiol. 27(12):651-6, 1998
                                                                              24. Kim HW et al: Spine update. The management of scoliosis in neurofibromatosis. Spine. 22(23):2770-6, 1997