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Scrotal Trauma
Bryan R. Foster, MD; Mitchell Tublin, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Pathology

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Testicular rupture, fracture of testis, hematocele
        • Definitions

          • Rupture of tunica albuginea; extrusion of seminiferous tubules into scrotal sac; collection of blood in tunica vaginalis or scrotal wall

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Ultrasonographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                Selected References

                                1. Sweet DE et al: Imaging of the acute scrotum: keys to a rapid diagnosis of acute scrotal disorders. Abdom Radiol. 4:2063-81, 2020
                                2. Rebik K et al: Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(3):635-48, 2019
                                3. Trinci M et al: Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and comparison with color Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance in a case of scrotal trauma. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2019
                                4. Bertolotto M et al: Multiparametric US for scrotal diseases. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(4):899-917, 2018
                                5. Grigorian A et al: National analysis of testicular and scrotal trauma in the USA. Res Rep Urol. 10:51-56, 2018
                                6. Wang A et al: A Review of Imaging Modalities Used in the Diagnosis and Management of Scrotal Trauma. Curr Urol Rep. 18(12):98, 2017
                                7. Avery LL et al: Imaging of penile and scrotal emergencies. Radiographics. 33(3):721-40, 2013
                                8. D'Andrea A et al: US in the assessment of acute scrotum. Crit Ultrasound J. 5 Suppl 1:S8, 2013
                                9. Delaney LR et al: Ultrasound of the pediatric scrotum. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 34(3):248-56, 2013
                                10. Sung EK et al: Sonography of the pediatric scrotum: emphasis on the Ts--torsion, trauma, and tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(5):996-1003, 2012
                                11. Lobianco R et al: Contrast-enhanced sonography in blunt scrotal trauma(). J Ultrasound. 14(4):188-95, 2011
                                12. Yagil Y et al: Role of Doppler ultrasonography in the triage of acute scrotum in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med. 29(1):11-21, 2010
                                13. Kim SH et al: The efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of testicular rupture: a prospective preliminary study. J Trauma. 66(1):239-42, 2009
                                14. Bhatt S et al: Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma. Radiographics. 28(6):1617-29, 2008
                                15. Deurdulian C et al: US of acute scrotal trauma: optimal technique, imaging findings, and management. Radiographics. 27(2):357-69, 2007
                                16. Kim SH et al: Significant predictors for determination of testicular rupture on sonography: a prospective study. J Ultrasound Med. 26(12):1649-55, 2007
                                17. Buckley JC et al: Use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of testicular injuries in blunt scrotal trauma. J Urol. 175(1):175-8, 2006
                                18. Pepe P et al: Does color Doppler sonography improve the clinical assessment of patients with acute scrotum? Eur J Radiol. 60(1):120-4, 2006
                                19. Micallef M et al: Ultrasound features of blunt testicular injury. Injury. 32(1):23-6, 2001
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Imaging

                                  • Pathology

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Testicular rupture, fracture of testis, hematocele
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Rupture of tunica albuginea; extrusion of seminiferous tubules into scrotal sac; collection of blood in tunica vaginalis or scrotal wall

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Sweet DE et al: Imaging of the acute scrotum: keys to a rapid diagnosis of acute scrotal disorders. Abdom Radiol. 4:2063-81, 2020
                                                              2. Rebik K et al: Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am. 57(3):635-48, 2019
                                                              3. Trinci M et al: Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and comparison with color Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance in a case of scrotal trauma. J Ultrasound. ePub, 2019
                                                              4. Bertolotto M et al: Multiparametric US for scrotal diseases. Abdom Radiol (NY). 43(4):899-917, 2018
                                                              5. Grigorian A et al: National analysis of testicular and scrotal trauma in the USA. Res Rep Urol. 10:51-56, 2018
                                                              6. Wang A et al: A Review of Imaging Modalities Used in the Diagnosis and Management of Scrotal Trauma. Curr Urol Rep. 18(12):98, 2017
                                                              7. Avery LL et al: Imaging of penile and scrotal emergencies. Radiographics. 33(3):721-40, 2013
                                                              8. D'Andrea A et al: US in the assessment of acute scrotum. Crit Ultrasound J. 5 Suppl 1:S8, 2013
                                                              9. Delaney LR et al: Ultrasound of the pediatric scrotum. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 34(3):248-56, 2013
                                                              10. Sung EK et al: Sonography of the pediatric scrotum: emphasis on the Ts--torsion, trauma, and tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(5):996-1003, 2012
                                                              11. Lobianco R et al: Contrast-enhanced sonography in blunt scrotal trauma(). J Ultrasound. 14(4):188-95, 2011
                                                              12. Yagil Y et al: Role of Doppler ultrasonography in the triage of acute scrotum in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med. 29(1):11-21, 2010
                                                              13. Kim SH et al: The efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of testicular rupture: a prospective preliminary study. J Trauma. 66(1):239-42, 2009
                                                              14. Bhatt S et al: Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma. Radiographics. 28(6):1617-29, 2008
                                                              15. Deurdulian C et al: US of acute scrotal trauma: optimal technique, imaging findings, and management. Radiographics. 27(2):357-69, 2007
                                                              16. Kim SH et al: Significant predictors for determination of testicular rupture on sonography: a prospective study. J Ultrasound Med. 26(12):1649-55, 2007
                                                              17. Buckley JC et al: Use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of testicular injuries in blunt scrotal trauma. J Urol. 175(1):175-8, 2006
                                                              18. Pepe P et al: Does color Doppler sonography improve the clinical assessment of patients with acute scrotum? Eur J Radiol. 60(1):120-4, 2006
                                                              19. Micallef M et al: Ultrasound features of blunt testicular injury. Injury. 32(1):23-6, 2001