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Sickle Cell Anemia
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Sickle cell (SC) disease
        • Definitions

          • Homozygous HbSS (autosomal recessive) inherited hemoglobinopathy
            • Musculoskeletal imaging findings reflect one or both of the following processes
              • Chronic hemolytic anemia
              • Microvascular occlusion created by sickled red blood cells when exposed to low oxygen tension
          • Heterozygous: HbSA (sickle cell trait), HbSC (↓ severity)

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Key NS et al: Negative health implications of sickle cell trait in high income countries: from the football field to the laboratory. Br J Haematol. ePub, 2015
                                  2. Walters MC: Update of hematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 22(3):227-33, 2015
                                  3. Wood JC: Estimating tissue iron burden: current status and future prospects. Br J Haematol. ePub, 2015
                                  4. Ihde LL et al: Sclerosing bone dysplasias: review and differentiation from other causes of osteosclerosis. Radiographics. 31(7):1865-82, 2011
                                  5. Jain R et al: Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis. Clin Radiol. 63(1):59-70, 2008
                                  6. Ejindu VC et al: Musculoskeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Radiographics. 27(4):1005-21, 2007
                                  7. Sathappan SS et al: Multidisciplinary management of orthopedic patients with sickle cell disease. Orthopedics. 29(12):1094-101; quiz 1102-3, 2006
                                  8. Umans H et al: The diagnostic role of gadolinium enhanced MRI in distinguishing between acute medullary bone infarct and osteomyelitis. Magn Reson Imaging. 18(3):255-62, 2000
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Terminology

                                    • Imaging

                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Abbreviations

                                          • Sickle cell (SC) disease
                                        • Definitions

                                          • Homozygous HbSS (autosomal recessive) inherited hemoglobinopathy
                                            • Musculoskeletal imaging findings reflect one or both of the following processes
                                              • Chronic hemolytic anemia
                                              • Microvascular occlusion created by sickled red blood cells when exposed to low oxygen tension
                                          • Heterozygous: HbSA (sickle cell trait), HbSC (↓ severity)

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Key NS et al: Negative health implications of sickle cell trait in high income countries: from the football field to the laboratory. Br J Haematol. ePub, 2015
                                                                  2. Walters MC: Update of hematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 22(3):227-33, 2015
                                                                  3. Wood JC: Estimating tissue iron burden: current status and future prospects. Br J Haematol. ePub, 2015
                                                                  4. Ihde LL et al: Sclerosing bone dysplasias: review and differentiation from other causes of osteosclerosis. Radiographics. 31(7):1865-82, 2011
                                                                  5. Jain R et al: Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis. Clin Radiol. 63(1):59-70, 2008
                                                                  6. Ejindu VC et al: Musculoskeletal manifestations of sickle cell disease. Radiographics. 27(4):1005-21, 2007
                                                                  7. Sathappan SS et al: Multidisciplinary management of orthopedic patients with sickle cell disease. Orthopedics. 29(12):1094-101; quiz 1102-3, 2006
                                                                  8. Umans H et al: The diagnostic role of gadolinium enhanced MRI in distinguishing between acute medullary bone infarct and osteomyelitis. Magn Reson Imaging. 18(3):255-62, 2000