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Sickle Cell Disease, Spine
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Sickle cell anemia, HbSS disease
            • Definitions

              • Hereditary hemoglobinopathy resulting in anemia and red blood cells that deform (sickle) and occlude blood vessels
              • Homozygous: HbSS (sickle cell anemia)
              • Heterozygous: HbSA (sickle cell trait, asymptomatic), HbSC (less severe form)
              • Sickle cell crisis: Acute episode of severe bone, abdomen, chest pain

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Krupniewski L et al: Tuberculous spondylodiscitis in a patient with a sickle-cell disease: CT findings. Pol J Radiol. 77(1):72-6, 2012
                                      2. Das D et al: MRI appearances of extramedullary haematopoiesis presenting with cauda equina syndrome in sickle cell disease. Clin Radiol. 66(12):1219-22, 2011
                                      3. Gupta R et al: Pattern of bone mineral density in sickle cell disease patients with the high-Hb F phenotype. Acta Haematol. 123(1):64-70, 2010
                                      4. Porter JB: Pathophysiology of transfusional iron overload: contrasting patterns in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin. 33 Suppl 1:S37-45, 2009
                                      5. Sarrai M et al: Bone mass density in adults with sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 136(4):666-72, 2007
                                      6. Kim SK et al: Natural history and distribution of bone and bone marrow infarction in sickle hemoglobinopathies. J Nucl Med. 43(7):896-900, 2002
                                      7. Lonergan GJ et al: Sickle cell anemia. Radiographics. 21(4):971-94, 2001
                                      8. Skaggs DL et al: Differentiation between bone infarction and acute osteomyelitis in children with sickle-cell disease with use of sequential radionuclide bone-marrow and bone scans. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(12):1810-3, 2001
                                      9. States LJ: Imaging of metabolic bone disease and marrow disorders in children. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(4):749-72, 2001
                                      10. Umans H et al: The diagnostic role of gadolinium enhanced MRI in distinguishing between acute medullary bone infarct and osteomyelitis. Magn Reson Imaging. 18(3):255-62, 2000
                                      11. Roger E et al: Sickle cell disease of the spine in children. Can J Surg. 42(4):289-92, 1999
                                      12. Marlow TJ et al: "Tower vertebra": a new observation in sickle cell disease. Skeletal Radiol. 27(4):195-8, 1998
                                      13. Kahn CE Jr et al: Combined bone marrow and gallium imaging. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle hemoglobinopathy. Clin Nucl Med. 13(6):443-9, 1988
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Sickle cell anemia, HbSS disease
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Hereditary hemoglobinopathy resulting in anemia and red blood cells that deform (sickle) and occlude blood vessels
                                                  • Homozygous: HbSS (sickle cell anemia)
                                                  • Heterozygous: HbSA (sickle cell trait, asymptomatic), HbSC (less severe form)
                                                  • Sickle cell crisis: Acute episode of severe bone, abdomen, chest pain

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Krupniewski L et al: Tuberculous spondylodiscitis in a patient with a sickle-cell disease: CT findings. Pol J Radiol. 77(1):72-6, 2012
                                                                          2. Das D et al: MRI appearances of extramedullary haematopoiesis presenting with cauda equina syndrome in sickle cell disease. Clin Radiol. 66(12):1219-22, 2011
                                                                          3. Gupta R et al: Pattern of bone mineral density in sickle cell disease patients with the high-Hb F phenotype. Acta Haematol. 123(1):64-70, 2010
                                                                          4. Porter JB: Pathophysiology of transfusional iron overload: contrasting patterns in thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin. 33 Suppl 1:S37-45, 2009
                                                                          5. Sarrai M et al: Bone mass density in adults with sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 136(4):666-72, 2007
                                                                          6. Kim SK et al: Natural history and distribution of bone and bone marrow infarction in sickle hemoglobinopathies. J Nucl Med. 43(7):896-900, 2002
                                                                          7. Lonergan GJ et al: Sickle cell anemia. Radiographics. 21(4):971-94, 2001
                                                                          8. Skaggs DL et al: Differentiation between bone infarction and acute osteomyelitis in children with sickle-cell disease with use of sequential radionuclide bone-marrow and bone scans. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(12):1810-3, 2001
                                                                          9. States LJ: Imaging of metabolic bone disease and marrow disorders in children. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(4):749-72, 2001
                                                                          10. Umans H et al: The diagnostic role of gadolinium enhanced MRI in distinguishing between acute medullary bone infarct and osteomyelitis. Magn Reson Imaging. 18(3):255-62, 2000
                                                                          11. Roger E et al: Sickle cell disease of the spine in children. Can J Surg. 42(4):289-92, 1999
                                                                          12. Marlow TJ et al: "Tower vertebra": a new observation in sickle cell disease. Skeletal Radiol. 27(4):195-8, 1998
                                                                          13. Kahn CE Jr et al: Combined bone marrow and gallium imaging. Differentiation of osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle hemoglobinopathy. Clin Nucl Med. 13(6):443-9, 1988