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Sinonasal Anatomic Variants
Luke N. Ledbetter, MD; Michelle A. Michel, MD
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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

      • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

        • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

          • Helpful Clues for Rare Diagnoses

            • Other Essential Information

              Selected References

              1. Choby G et al: Computed tomography analysis of frontal cell prevalence according to the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. ePub, 2018
              2. Iida E et al: Imaging of Paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base and relevant anatomic variations. Radiol Clin North Am. 55(1):31-52, 2017
              3. Wormald PJ et al: The International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) and Classification of the Extent of Endoscopic Frontal Sinus Surgery (EFSS). Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 6(7):677-96, 2016
              4. Shpilberg KA et al: CT of Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity: Poor Correlation With Radiologically Significant Rhinosinusitis but Importance in Surgical Planning. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(6):1255-60, 2015
              5. Vaid S et al: Normal Anatomy and Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses on Computed Tomography. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(4):527-48, 2015
              6. Alkire BC et al: An assessment of sinonasal anatomic variants potentially associated with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 120(3):631-4, 2010
              7. Hoang JK et al: Multiplanar sinus CT: a systematic approach to imaging before functional endoscopic sinus surgery. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):W527-36, 2010
              8. Huang BY et al: Failed endoscopic sinus surgery: spectrum of CT findings in the frontal recess. Radiographics. 29(1):177-95, 2009
              9. Aygun N et al: Imaging for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 39(3):403-16, vii, 2006
              10. DelGaudio JM et al: Multiplanar computed tomographic analysis of frontal recess cells: effect on frontal isthmus size and frontal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 131(3):230-5, 2005
              11. Meyer TK et al: Coronal computed tomography analysis of frontal cells. Am J Rhinol. 17(3):163-8, 2003
              12. Zeifer B: Update on sinonasal imaging: anatomy and inflammatory disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 8(3):607-30, 1998
              13. Melhem ER et al: Optimal CT evaluation for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(1):181-8, 1996
              14. Earwaker J: Anatomic variants in sinonasal CT. Radiographics. 13(2):381-415, 1993
              Related Anatomy
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              Related Differential Diagnoses
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              References
              Tables

              Tables

              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

                • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

                  • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

                    • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

                      • Helpful Clues for Rare Diagnoses

                        • Other Essential Information

                          Selected References

                          1. Choby G et al: Computed tomography analysis of frontal cell prevalence according to the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. ePub, 2018
                          2. Iida E et al: Imaging of Paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base and relevant anatomic variations. Radiol Clin North Am. 55(1):31-52, 2017
                          3. Wormald PJ et al: The International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) and Classification of the Extent of Endoscopic Frontal Sinus Surgery (EFSS). Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 6(7):677-96, 2016
                          4. Shpilberg KA et al: CT of Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity: Poor Correlation With Radiologically Significant Rhinosinusitis but Importance in Surgical Planning. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(6):1255-60, 2015
                          5. Vaid S et al: Normal Anatomy and Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses on Computed Tomography. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(4):527-48, 2015
                          6. Alkire BC et al: An assessment of sinonasal anatomic variants potentially associated with recurrent acute rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 120(3):631-4, 2010
                          7. Hoang JK et al: Multiplanar sinus CT: a systematic approach to imaging before functional endoscopic sinus surgery. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(6):W527-36, 2010
                          8. Huang BY et al: Failed endoscopic sinus surgery: spectrum of CT findings in the frontal recess. Radiographics. 29(1):177-95, 2009
                          9. Aygun N et al: Imaging for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 39(3):403-16, vii, 2006
                          10. DelGaudio JM et al: Multiplanar computed tomographic analysis of frontal recess cells: effect on frontal isthmus size and frontal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 131(3):230-5, 2005
                          11. Meyer TK et al: Coronal computed tomography analysis of frontal cells. Am J Rhinol. 17(3):163-8, 2003
                          12. Zeifer B: Update on sinonasal imaging: anatomy and inflammatory disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 8(3):607-30, 1998
                          13. Melhem ER et al: Optimal CT evaluation for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 17(1):181-8, 1996
                          14. Earwaker J: Anatomic variants in sinonasal CT. Radiographics. 13(2):381-415, 1993