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Sinonasal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Sinonasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL-SN)
              • Definitions

                • NHL-SN: Extranodal lymphoproliferative malignancy, most often of B-cell, T-cell, or NK-/T-cell origin
                  • Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL): Subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma
                    • Previously called lethal midline granuloma, polymorphic reticulosis, angiocentric T-cell lymphoma

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Chen Y et al: Differential diagnosis of sinonasal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma on MRI. Neuroradiology. 62(9):1149-55, 2020
                                              2. Sohal RJ et al: Primary sinonasal lymphoma: a rare cause of cranial neuropathies. Cureus. 12(5):e8135, 2020
                                              3. Varelas AN et al: Epidemiologic, prognostic, and treatment factors in sinonasal diffuse large B -cell lymphoma. Laryngoscope. 129(6):1259-64, 2019
                                              4. Shirazi N et al: Primary sinonasal lymphoma in immunocompetent patients: a 10 years retrospective clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 22(2):280-1, 2018
                                              5. Crane GM et al: Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract. Semin Diagn Pathol. 33(2):71-80, 2016
                                              6. Kreisel FH: Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract. Head Neck Pathol. 10(1):109-17, 2016
                                              7. Wang X et al: Effectiveness of 3 T PROPELLER DUO diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating sinonasal lymphomas and carcinomas. Clin Radiol. 69(11):1149-56, 2014
                                              8. Sandner A et al: Primary extranodal Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbital and paranasal region-a retrospective study. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):302-8, 2013
                                              9. Sasaki M et al: Multiparametric MR imaging of sinonasal diseases: time-signal intensity curve- and apparent diffusion coefficient-based differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):2154-9, 2011
                                              10. Kim J et al: Extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma: computed tomography findings of head and neck involvement. Acta Radiol. 51(2):164-9, 2010
                                              11. Tempescul A et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sinonasal tract. Ann Hematol. 89(6):635-7, 2010
                                              12. Sands NB et al: Extranodal T-cell lymphoma of the sinonasal tract presenting as severe rhinitis: case series. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 37(4):528-33, 2008
                                              13. Neves MC et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus: case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 84(1):47-51, 2005
                                              14. Batlle JC et al: Hodgkin disease in the sinonasal region detected by FDG PET. Clin Nucl Med. 29(7):449, 2004
                                              15. Li CC et al: Treatment outcome and pattern of failure in 77 patients with sinonasal natural killer/T-cell or T-cell lymphoma. Cancer. 100(2):366-75, 2004
                                              16. Shohat I et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sinonasal tract. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 97(3):328-31, 2004
                                              17. Woo JS et al: Clinical analysis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the sinonasal tract. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 261(4):197-201, 2004
                                              18. Hatta C et al: Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma of the sinonasal tract--treatment outcome for 53 patients according to REAL classification. Auris Nasus Larynx. 28(1):55-60, 2001
                                              19. Borges A et al: Midline destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract: simplified terminology based on histopathologic criteria. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(2):331-6, 2000
                                              20. Gaal K et al: Sinonasal NK/T-cell lymphomas in the United States. Am J Surg Pathol. 24(11):1511-7, 2000
                                              21. Gufler H et al: MRI of lymphomas of the orbits and the paranasal sinuses. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 21(6):887-91, 1997
                                              22. Hanna E et al: Extranodal lymphomas of the head and neck. A 20-year experience. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 123(12):1318-23, 1997
                                              23. Nakamura K et al: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sinonasal cavities: correlation of CT evaluation with clinical outcome. Radiology. 204(2):431-5, 1997
                                              24. Harnsberger HR et al: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck: CT evaluation of nodal and extranodal sites. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(4):785-91, 1987
                                              25. Kondo M et al: Computed tomography of sinonasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 8(2):216-9, 1984
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Sinonasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL-SN)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • NHL-SN: Extranodal lymphoproliferative malignancy, most often of B-cell, T-cell, or NK-/T-cell origin
                                                              • Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL): Subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma
                                                                • Previously called lethal midline granuloma, polymorphic reticulosis, angiocentric T-cell lymphoma

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Chen Y et al: Differential diagnosis of sinonasal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma on MRI. Neuroradiology. 62(9):1149-55, 2020
                                                                                          2. Sohal RJ et al: Primary sinonasal lymphoma: a rare cause of cranial neuropathies. Cureus. 12(5):e8135, 2020
                                                                                          3. Varelas AN et al: Epidemiologic, prognostic, and treatment factors in sinonasal diffuse large B -cell lymphoma. Laryngoscope. 129(6):1259-64, 2019
                                                                                          4. Shirazi N et al: Primary sinonasal lymphoma in immunocompetent patients: a 10 years retrospective clinicopathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 22(2):280-1, 2018
                                                                                          5. Crane GM et al: Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract. Semin Diagn Pathol. 33(2):71-80, 2016
                                                                                          6. Kreisel FH: Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract. Head Neck Pathol. 10(1):109-17, 2016
                                                                                          7. Wang X et al: Effectiveness of 3 T PROPELLER DUO diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating sinonasal lymphomas and carcinomas. Clin Radiol. 69(11):1149-56, 2014
                                                                                          8. Sandner A et al: Primary extranodal Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbital and paranasal region-a retrospective study. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):302-8, 2013
                                                                                          9. Sasaki M et al: Multiparametric MR imaging of sinonasal diseases: time-signal intensity curve- and apparent diffusion coefficient-based differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 32(11):2154-9, 2011
                                                                                          10. Kim J et al: Extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma: computed tomography findings of head and neck involvement. Acta Radiol. 51(2):164-9, 2010
                                                                                          11. Tempescul A et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sinonasal tract. Ann Hematol. 89(6):635-7, 2010
                                                                                          12. Sands NB et al: Extranodal T-cell lymphoma of the sinonasal tract presenting as severe rhinitis: case series. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 37(4):528-33, 2008
                                                                                          13. Neves MC et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the frontal sinus: case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 84(1):47-51, 2005
                                                                                          14. Batlle JC et al: Hodgkin disease in the sinonasal region detected by FDG PET. Clin Nucl Med. 29(7):449, 2004
                                                                                          15. Li CC et al: Treatment outcome and pattern of failure in 77 patients with sinonasal natural killer/T-cell or T-cell lymphoma. Cancer. 100(2):366-75, 2004
                                                                                          16. Shohat I et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the sinonasal tract. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 97(3):328-31, 2004
                                                                                          17. Woo JS et al: Clinical analysis of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the sinonasal tract. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 261(4):197-201, 2004
                                                                                          18. Hatta C et al: Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma of the sinonasal tract--treatment outcome for 53 patients according to REAL classification. Auris Nasus Larynx. 28(1):55-60, 2001
                                                                                          19. Borges A et al: Midline destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract: simplified terminology based on histopathologic criteria. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(2):331-6, 2000
                                                                                          20. Gaal K et al: Sinonasal NK/T-cell lymphomas in the United States. Am J Surg Pathol. 24(11):1511-7, 2000
                                                                                          21. Gufler H et al: MRI of lymphomas of the orbits and the paranasal sinuses. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 21(6):887-91, 1997
                                                                                          22. Hanna E et al: Extranodal lymphomas of the head and neck. A 20-year experience. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 123(12):1318-23, 1997
                                                                                          23. Nakamura K et al: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the sinonasal cavities: correlation of CT evaluation with clinical outcome. Radiology. 204(2):431-5, 1997
                                                                                          24. Harnsberger HR et al: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck: CT evaluation of nodal and extranodal sites. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 149(4):785-91, 1987
                                                                                          25. Kondo M et al: Computed tomography of sinonasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 8(2):216-9, 1984