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Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Yoshimi Anzai, MD, MPH
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
            • Synonyms

              • Epidermoid carcinoma, transitional carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, respiratory mucosal carcinoma
            • Definitions

              • Malignant epithelial tumor growing from sinus surface epithelium into sinus lumen with squamous cell or epidermoid differentiation

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Dubal PM et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a population-based analysis. Laryngoscope. 126(2):399-404, 2016
                                              2. Bossi P et al: The role of systemic therapy in the management of sinonasal cancer: A critical review. Cancer Treat Rev. 41(10):836-43, 2015
                                              3. Dutta R et al: Sinonasal malignancies: A population-based analysis of site-specific incidence and survival. Laryngoscope. 125(11):2491-7, 2015
                                              4. Fujima N et al: Differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma and inverted papilloma using non-invasive MR perfusion imaging. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 44(9):20150074, 2015
                                              5. Laco J et al: The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts in a subset of sinonasal carcinomas is evidence of involvement of HPV in its etiopathogenesis. Virchows Arch. 467(4):405-15, 2015
                                              6. Udager AM et al: High-Frequency Targetable EGFR Mutations in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arising from Inverted Sinonasal Papilloma. Cancer Res. 75(13):2600-6, 2015
                                              7. Eley KA et al: MRI pre-treatment tumour volume in maxillary complex squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgical resection. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 42(2):119-24, 2014
                                              8. Homma A et al: Lymph node metastasis in t4 maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and treatment outcome. Ann Surg Oncol. 21(5):1706-10, 2014
                                              9. Lee DJ et al: Discrepancy between preoperative MRI evaluation and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 43(6):674-9, 2014
                                              10. Lee HS et al: Clinical values for abnormal ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 83(8):1455-60, 2014
                                              11. Llorente JL et al: Sinonasal carcinoma: clinical, pathological, genetic and therapeutic advances. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 11(8):460-72, 2014
                                              12. Roh JL et al: 18F fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with negative neck palpation findings: a prospective study. Radiology. 271(1):153-61, 2014
                                              13. Sanghvi S et al: Epidemiology of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive analysis of 4994 patients. Laryngoscope. 124(1):76-83, 2014
                                              14. Ansa B et al: Paranasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma incidence and survival based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, 1973 to 2009. Cancer. 119(14):2602-10, 2013
                                              15. Alos L et al: Human papillomaviruses are identified in a subgroup of sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas with favorable outcome. Cancer. 115(12):2701-9, 2009
                                              16. Cohen EG et al: 18F-FDG PET evaluation of sinonasal papilloma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(1):214-7, 2009
                                              17. Gil Z et al: Patterns and incidence of neural invasion in patients with cancers of the paranasal sinuses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(2):173-9, 2009
                                              18. Hanna E et al: Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(12):1219-24, 2009
                                              19. Jeon TY et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal inverted papilloma with or without coexistent malignancy: comparison with MR imaging findings in eight patients. Neuroradiology. 51(4):265-71, 2009
                                              20. Jo VY et al: Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: frequent association with human papillomavirus infection and invasive carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 33(11):1720-4, 2009
                                              21. Jeon TY et al: Sinonasal inverted papilloma: value of convoluted cerebriform pattern on MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(8):1556-60, 2008
                                              22. Chen AM et al: Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 69(1):141-7, 2007
                                              23. Donta TS et al: Head and neck cancer: carcinoma of unknown primary. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):281-92, 2007
                                              24. Lee CH et al: Survival rates of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma with the new AJCC staging system. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(2):131-4, 2007
                                              25. Raghavan P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of sinonasal malignancies. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):259-67, 2007
                                              26. Wolpoe ME et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity arising as a second primary in individuals with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 116(5):696-9, 2006
                                              27. El-Mofty SK et al: Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in nonkeratinizing (cylindrical cell) carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a distinct clinicopathologic and molecular disease entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 29(10):1367-72, 2005
                                              28. Franchi A et al: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, nasopharyngeal-type undifferentiated carcinoma, and keratinizing and nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma express different cytokeratin patterns. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12): 1597-604, 2002
                                              29. Loevner LA et al: Imaging of neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(3): 467-93, 2002
                                              30. Luce D et al: Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control. 13(2): 147-57, 2002
                                              31. Suarez PA et al: Papillary squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract: a clinicopathologic and molecular study. Head Neck. 22(4): 360-8, 2000
                                              32. Hermans R et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 20(3):150-61, 1999
                                              33. Miyaguchi M et al: Lymph node and distant metastases in patients with sinonasal carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol. 109(4): 304-7, 1995
                                              34. Vaughan TL et al: Wood dust exposure and squamous cell cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Am J Epidemiol. 133(6): 560-4, 1991
                                              35. Som PM et al: Sinonasal tumors and inflammatory tissues: differentiation with MR imaging. Radiology. 167(3):803-8, 1988
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Epidermoid carcinoma, transitional carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, respiratory mucosal carcinoma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Malignant epithelial tumor growing from sinus surface epithelium into sinus lumen with squamous cell or epidermoid differentiation

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Dubal PM et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a population-based analysis. Laryngoscope. 126(2):399-404, 2016
                                                                                          2. Bossi P et al: The role of systemic therapy in the management of sinonasal cancer: A critical review. Cancer Treat Rev. 41(10):836-43, 2015
                                                                                          3. Dutta R et al: Sinonasal malignancies: A population-based analysis of site-specific incidence and survival. Laryngoscope. 125(11):2491-7, 2015
                                                                                          4. Fujima N et al: Differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma and inverted papilloma using non-invasive MR perfusion imaging. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 44(9):20150074, 2015
                                                                                          5. Laco J et al: The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts in a subset of sinonasal carcinomas is evidence of involvement of HPV in its etiopathogenesis. Virchows Arch. 467(4):405-15, 2015
                                                                                          6. Udager AM et al: High-Frequency Targetable EGFR Mutations in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arising from Inverted Sinonasal Papilloma. Cancer Res. 75(13):2600-6, 2015
                                                                                          7. Eley KA et al: MRI pre-treatment tumour volume in maxillary complex squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgical resection. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 42(2):119-24, 2014
                                                                                          8. Homma A et al: Lymph node metastasis in t4 maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and treatment outcome. Ann Surg Oncol. 21(5):1706-10, 2014
                                                                                          9. Lee DJ et al: Discrepancy between preoperative MRI evaluation and intraoperative or postoperative pathological findings for the extent of local invasion in maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 43(6):674-9, 2014
                                                                                          10. Lee HS et al: Clinical values for abnormal ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 83(8):1455-60, 2014
                                                                                          11. Llorente JL et al: Sinonasal carcinoma: clinical, pathological, genetic and therapeutic advances. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 11(8):460-72, 2014
                                                                                          12. Roh JL et al: 18F fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with negative neck palpation findings: a prospective study. Radiology. 271(1):153-61, 2014
                                                                                          13. Sanghvi S et al: Epidemiology of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive analysis of 4994 patients. Laryngoscope. 124(1):76-83, 2014
                                                                                          14. Ansa B et al: Paranasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma incidence and survival based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, 1973 to 2009. Cancer. 119(14):2602-10, 2013
                                                                                          15. Alos L et al: Human papillomaviruses are identified in a subgroup of sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas with favorable outcome. Cancer. 115(12):2701-9, 2009
                                                                                          16. Cohen EG et al: 18F-FDG PET evaluation of sinonasal papilloma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193(1):214-7, 2009
                                                                                          17. Gil Z et al: Patterns and incidence of neural invasion in patients with cancers of the paranasal sinuses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(2):173-9, 2009
                                                                                          18. Hanna E et al: Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 135(12):1219-24, 2009
                                                                                          19. Jeon TY et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal inverted papilloma with or without coexistent malignancy: comparison with MR imaging findings in eight patients. Neuroradiology. 51(4):265-71, 2009
                                                                                          20. Jo VY et al: Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: frequent association with human papillomavirus infection and invasive carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 33(11):1720-4, 2009
                                                                                          21. Jeon TY et al: Sinonasal inverted papilloma: value of convoluted cerebriform pattern on MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(8):1556-60, 2008
                                                                                          22. Chen AM et al: Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 69(1):141-7, 2007
                                                                                          23. Donta TS et al: Head and neck cancer: carcinoma of unknown primary. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):281-92, 2007
                                                                                          24. Lee CH et al: Survival rates of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma with the new AJCC staging system. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 133(2):131-4, 2007
                                                                                          25. Raghavan P et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of sinonasal malignancies. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 18(4):259-67, 2007
                                                                                          26. Wolpoe ME et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity arising as a second primary in individuals with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 116(5):696-9, 2006
                                                                                          27. El-Mofty SK et al: Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in nonkeratinizing (cylindrical cell) carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a distinct clinicopathologic and molecular disease entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 29(10):1367-72, 2005
                                                                                          28. Franchi A et al: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, nasopharyngeal-type undifferentiated carcinoma, and keratinizing and nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma express different cytokeratin patterns. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12): 1597-604, 2002
                                                                                          29. Loevner LA et al: Imaging of neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(3): 467-93, 2002
                                                                                          30. Luce D et al: Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposures: a pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control. 13(2): 147-57, 2002
                                                                                          31. Suarez PA et al: Papillary squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract: a clinicopathologic and molecular study. Head Neck. 22(4): 360-8, 2000
                                                                                          32. Hermans R et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 20(3):150-61, 1999
                                                                                          33. Miyaguchi M et al: Lymph node and distant metastases in patients with sinonasal carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol. 109(4): 304-7, 1995
                                                                                          34. Vaughan TL et al: Wood dust exposure and squamous cell cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Am J Epidemiol. 133(6): 560-4, 1991
                                                                                          35. Som PM et al: Sinonasal tumors and inflammatory tissues: differentiation with MR imaging. Radiology. 167(3):803-8, 1988