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Situs Anomalies
Christopher Z. Lam, MD
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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

    • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

      • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

        • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

          Selected References

          1. Yim D et al: Disharmonious patterns of heterotaxy and isomerism: how often are the classic patterns breached? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 11(2):e006917, 2018
          2. Loomba RS et al: Chronic arrhythmias in the setting of heterotaxy: differences between right and left isomerism. Congenit Heart Dis. 11(1):7-18, 2016
          3. Loomba R et al: Radiologic considerations in heterotaxy: the need for detailed anatomic evaluation. Cureus. 8(1):e470, 2016
          4. Rubino M et al: Systemic and pulmonary venous connections in visceral heterotaxy with asplenia. Diagnostic and surgical considerations based on seventy-two autopsied cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 110(3):641-50, 1995
          5. Uemura H et al: Atrial appendages and venoatrial connections in hearts from patients with visceral heterotaxy. Ann Thorac Surg. 60(3):561-9, 1995
          6. Van Praagh R et al: Atrial isomerism in the heterotaxy syndromes with asplenia, or polysplenia, or normally formed spleen: an erroneous concept. Am J Cardiol. 66(20):1504-6, 1990
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          References
          Tables

          Tables

          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

            ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

            • Key Differential Diagnosis Issues

              • Helpful Clues for Common Diagnoses

                • Helpful Clues for Less Common Diagnoses

                  Selected References

                  1. Yim D et al: Disharmonious patterns of heterotaxy and isomerism: how often are the classic patterns breached? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 11(2):e006917, 2018
                  2. Loomba RS et al: Chronic arrhythmias in the setting of heterotaxy: differences between right and left isomerism. Congenit Heart Dis. 11(1):7-18, 2016
                  3. Loomba R et al: Radiologic considerations in heterotaxy: the need for detailed anatomic evaluation. Cureus. 8(1):e470, 2016
                  4. Rubino M et al: Systemic and pulmonary venous connections in visceral heterotaxy with asplenia. Diagnostic and surgical considerations based on seventy-two autopsied cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 110(3):641-50, 1995
                  5. Uemura H et al: Atrial appendages and venoatrial connections in hearts from patients with visceral heterotaxy. Ann Thorac Surg. 60(3):561-9, 1995
                  6. Van Praagh R et al: Atrial isomerism in the heterotaxy syndromes with asplenia, or polysplenia, or normally formed spleen: an erroneous concept. Am J Cardiol. 66(20):1504-6, 1990