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Skull and Meningeal Metastases
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Skull metastases (SM), dural metastases (DM), arachnoid/subarachnoid metastases (ASAM), pial metastases (PM), leptomeningeal (pia + arachnoid) metastases (LM)
          • Definitions

            • Metastatic disease from extracranial primary tumor to tissues overlying brain

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Kak M et al: Treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: Current challenges and future opportunities. J Clin Neurosci. 22(4):632-637, 2015
                                        2. Lee EQ: Nervous system metastases from systemic cancer. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 21(2 Neuro-oncology):415-28, 2015
                                        3. Subirá D et al: Diagnostic and prognostic significance of flow cytometry immunophenotyping in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 32(4):383-91, 2015
                                        4. Kotecha R et al: Calvarial and skull base metastases: expanding the clinical utility of Gamma Knife surgery. J Neurosurg. 121 Suppl:91-101, 2014
                                        5. Yeh RH et al: Distinct MR Imaging Features of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis. J Neuroimaging. ePub, 2014
                                        6. Yokote A et al: Diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis without a history of malignancy in the absence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 119:88-90, 2014
                                        7. Weiner AB et al: Dural metastases in advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Curr Urol. 7(3):166-8, 2013
                                        8. Nayak L et al: Intracranial dural metastases. Cancer. 115(9):1947-53, 2009
                                        9. Nemeth AJ et al: Improved detection of skull metastasis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(6):1088-92, 2007
                                        10. O'Meara WP et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis. Curr Probl Cancer. 31(6):367-424, 2007
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Skull metastases (SM), dural metastases (DM), arachnoid/subarachnoid metastases (ASAM), pial metastases (PM), leptomeningeal (pia + arachnoid) metastases (LM)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Metastatic disease from extracranial primary tumor to tissues overlying brain

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Kak M et al: Treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: Current challenges and future opportunities. J Clin Neurosci. 22(4):632-637, 2015
                                                                              2. Lee EQ: Nervous system metastases from systemic cancer. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 21(2 Neuro-oncology):415-28, 2015
                                                                              3. Subirá D et al: Diagnostic and prognostic significance of flow cytometry immunophenotyping in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 32(4):383-91, 2015
                                                                              4. Kotecha R et al: Calvarial and skull base metastases: expanding the clinical utility of Gamma Knife surgery. J Neurosurg. 121 Suppl:91-101, 2014
                                                                              5. Yeh RH et al: Distinct MR Imaging Features of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis. J Neuroimaging. ePub, 2014
                                                                              6. Yokote A et al: Diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis without a history of malignancy in the absence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 119:88-90, 2014
                                                                              7. Weiner AB et al: Dural metastases in advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Curr Urol. 7(3):166-8, 2013
                                                                              8. Nayak L et al: Intracranial dural metastases. Cancer. 115(9):1947-53, 2009
                                                                              9. Nemeth AJ et al: Improved detection of skull metastasis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(6):1088-92, 2007
                                                                              10. O'Meara WP et al: Leptomeningeal metastasis. Curr Probl Cancer. 31(6):367-424, 2007