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Small Cell Carcinoma
Sonia L. Betancourt-Cuellar, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)
                • Limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma (LS-SCLC)
                • Extensive-stage small cell lung carcinoma (ES-SCLC)
            • Synonyms

              • Oat cell lung cancer
            • Definitions

              • Primary pulmonary neuroendocrine malignancy
                • More aggressive than other pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and non-small cell lung cancers
                • Rapid tumor growth, early metastatic spread, initial responsiveness to therapy
              • 13-15% of all lung cancers
            • Associated Syndromes

              • Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
                • Most common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC
                • ↑ secretion of antidiuretic hormone: Hyponatremia; impaired water excretion
              • Cushing syndrome
                • Increased production of adrenocorticotropic hormone: Weakness, hyperglycemia, polyuria, hypokalemic alkalosis
              • Eaton-Lambert syndrome
                • Impaired release of acetylcholine: Proximal muscle weakness
              • Encephalomyelitis
              • Limbic encephalitis
              • Acromegaly : ↑ ectopic growth hormone

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Martucci F et al: Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging patients with small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Med (Lausanne). 6:336, 2019
                                                2. Sager O et al: Utility of molecular imaging with 2-Deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-dglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC): a radiation oncology perspective. Curr Radiopharm. 12(1):4-10, 2019
                                                3. Kalemkerian GP et al: Advances in small cell lung cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 31(1):143-56, 2017
                                                4. Lee D et al: CT findings of small cell lung carcinoma: can recognizable features be found? Medicine (Baltimore). 95(47):e5426, 2016
                                                5. Carter BW et al: Small cell lung carcinoma: staging, imaging, and treatment considerations. Radiographics. 34(6):1707-21, 2014
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)
                                                              • Limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma (LS-SCLC)
                                                              • Extensive-stage small cell lung carcinoma (ES-SCLC)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Oat cell lung cancer
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Primary pulmonary neuroendocrine malignancy
                                                              • More aggressive than other pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and non-small cell lung cancers
                                                              • Rapid tumor growth, early metastatic spread, initial responsiveness to therapy
                                                            • 13-15% of all lung cancers
                                                          • Associated Syndromes

                                                            • Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
                                                              • Most common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC
                                                              • ↑ secretion of antidiuretic hormone: Hyponatremia; impaired water excretion
                                                            • Cushing syndrome
                                                              • Increased production of adrenocorticotropic hormone: Weakness, hyperglycemia, polyuria, hypokalemic alkalosis
                                                            • Eaton-Lambert syndrome
                                                              • Impaired release of acetylcholine: Proximal muscle weakness
                                                            • Encephalomyelitis
                                                            • Limbic encephalitis
                                                            • Acromegaly : ↑ ectopic growth hormone

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                • Presentation

                                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                        • Consider

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Martucci F et al: Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging patients with small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Med (Lausanne). 6:336, 2019
                                                                                              2. Sager O et al: Utility of molecular imaging with 2-Deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-dglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC): a radiation oncology perspective. Curr Radiopharm. 12(1):4-10, 2019
                                                                                              3. Kalemkerian GP et al: Advances in small cell lung cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 31(1):143-56, 2017
                                                                                              4. Lee D et al: CT findings of small cell lung carcinoma: can recognizable features be found? Medicine (Baltimore). 95(47):e5426, 2016
                                                                                              5. Carter BW et al: Small cell lung carcinoma: staging, imaging, and treatment considerations. Radiographics. 34(6):1707-21, 2014