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Spinal Cord Infarction
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Spinal cord infarction (SCI)
              • Synonyms

                • Spinal cord ischemia
              • Definitions

                • Cord infarction 2° to vessel occlusion (radicular artery)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Khoueiry M et al: Spinal cord infarction in a young adult: what is the culprit? J Spinal Cord Med. 1-4, 2019
                                          2. Zalewski NL et al: Characteristics of spontaneous spinal cord infarction and proposed diagnostic criteria. JAMA Neurol. 76(1):56-63, 2019
                                          3. Yadav N et al: Spinal cord infarction: clinical and radiological features. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 27(10):2810-21, 2018
                                          4. AbdelRazek MA et al: Fibrocartilaginous embolism: a comprehensive review of an under-studied cause of spinal cord infarction and proposed diagnostic criteria. J Spinal Cord Med. 39(2):146-54, 2016
                                          5. Romi F et al: Spinal cord infarction in clinical neurology: a review of characteristics and long-term prognosis in comparison to cerebral infarction. Eur Neurol. 76(3-4):95-8, 2016
                                          6. Reisner A et al: Spinal cord infarction following minor trauma in children: fibrocartilaginous embolism as a putative cause. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 11(4):445-50, 2013
                                          7. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                                          8. Cheng MY et al: Concomitant spinal cord and vertebral body infarction is highly associated with aortic pathology: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol. 256(9):1418-26, 2009
                                          9. Lyders EM et al: A case of spinal cord infarction following lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection: MR imaging and angiographic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(9):1691-3, 2009
                                          10. Malhotra G et al: Complications of transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):731-9, 2009
                                          11. Mommertz G et al: Brain and spinal cord protection during simultaneous aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 49(4):886-92, 2009
                                          12. Thurnher MM et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fiber tractography of the spinal cord. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 17(2):225-44, 2009
                                          13. Yin W et al: Retrograde filling of a thoracic spinal artery during transforaminal injection. Pain Med. 10(4):689-92, 2009
                                          14. Hobai IA et al: Perioperative spinal cord infarction in nonaortic surgery: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 20(4):307-12, 2008
                                          15. Uotani K et al: Preoperative visualization of the artery of Adamkiewicz by intra-arterial CT angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(2):314-8, 2008
                                          16. Nance JR et al: Ischemic spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture. Pediatr Neurol. 36(4):209-16, 2007
                                          17. Masson C et al: Spinal cord infarction: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings and short term outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(10):1431-5, 2004
                                          18. Weidauer S et al: Spinal cord infarction: MR imaging and clinical features in 16 cases. Neuroradiology. 44(10): 851-7, 2002
                                          19. Di Lazzaro V et al: Ischaemic myelopathy associated with cocaine: clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 63(4):531-3, 1997
                                          20. Cheshire WP et al: Spinal cord infarction: etiology and outcome. Neurology. 47(2): 321-30, 1996
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Spinal cord infarction (SCI)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Spinal cord ischemia
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Cord infarction 2° to vessel occlusion (radicular artery)

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Khoueiry M et al: Spinal cord infarction in a young adult: what is the culprit? J Spinal Cord Med. 1-4, 2019
                                                                                  2. Zalewski NL et al: Characteristics of spontaneous spinal cord infarction and proposed diagnostic criteria. JAMA Neurol. 76(1):56-63, 2019
                                                                                  3. Yadav N et al: Spinal cord infarction: clinical and radiological features. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 27(10):2810-21, 2018
                                                                                  4. AbdelRazek MA et al: Fibrocartilaginous embolism: a comprehensive review of an under-studied cause of spinal cord infarction and proposed diagnostic criteria. J Spinal Cord Med. 39(2):146-54, 2016
                                                                                  5. Romi F et al: Spinal cord infarction in clinical neurology: a review of characteristics and long-term prognosis in comparison to cerebral infarction. Eur Neurol. 76(3-4):95-8, 2016
                                                                                  6. Reisner A et al: Spinal cord infarction following minor trauma in children: fibrocartilaginous embolism as a putative cause. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 11(4):445-50, 2013
                                                                                  7. Rubin MN et al: Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 31(1):153-81, 2013
                                                                                  8. Cheng MY et al: Concomitant spinal cord and vertebral body infarction is highly associated with aortic pathology: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol. 256(9):1418-26, 2009
                                                                                  9. Lyders EM et al: A case of spinal cord infarction following lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection: MR imaging and angiographic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(9):1691-3, 2009
                                                                                  10. Malhotra G et al: Complications of transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(7):731-9, 2009
                                                                                  11. Mommertz G et al: Brain and spinal cord protection during simultaneous aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 49(4):886-92, 2009
                                                                                  12. Thurnher MM et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fiber tractography of the spinal cord. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 17(2):225-44, 2009
                                                                                  13. Yin W et al: Retrograde filling of a thoracic spinal artery during transforaminal injection. Pain Med. 10(4):689-92, 2009
                                                                                  14. Hobai IA et al: Perioperative spinal cord infarction in nonaortic surgery: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 20(4):307-12, 2008
                                                                                  15. Uotani K et al: Preoperative visualization of the artery of Adamkiewicz by intra-arterial CT angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 29(2):314-8, 2008
                                                                                  16. Nance JR et al: Ischemic spinal cord infarction in children without vertebral fracture. Pediatr Neurol. 36(4):209-16, 2007
                                                                                  17. Masson C et al: Spinal cord infarction: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings and short term outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(10):1431-5, 2004
                                                                                  18. Weidauer S et al: Spinal cord infarction: MR imaging and clinical features in 16 cases. Neuroradiology. 44(10): 851-7, 2002
                                                                                  19. Di Lazzaro V et al: Ischaemic myelopathy associated with cocaine: clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 63(4):531-3, 1997
                                                                                  20. Cheshire WP et al: Spinal cord infarction: etiology and outcome. Neurology. 47(2): 321-30, 1996