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Spondylolisthesis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS)
          • Definitions

            • Displacement of vertebral body, described relative to inferior vertebra
              • Anterolisthesis: Anterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
              • Retrolisthesis: Posterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
              • Spondyloptosis: Vertebral body displaced completely anteriorly, with inferior displacement to level of one below
            • Degenerative spondylolisthesis describes anterior slippage of vertebral body on another in presence of intact neural arch

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Smorgick Y et al: Single-versus multilevel fusion for single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis and multilevel lumbar stenosis: four-year results of the spine patient outcomes research trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(10):797-805, 2013
                                      2. Lattig F et al: Lumbar facet joint effusion in MRI: a sign of instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis? Eur Spine J. 21(2):276-81, 2012
                                      3. Sansur CA et al: Morbidity and mortality in the surgical treatment of 10,242 adults with spondylolisthesis. J Neurosurg Spine. 13(5):589-93, 2010
                                      4. Ekman P et al: Predictive factors for the outcome of fusion in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(11):1204-10, 2009
                                      5. Watters WC 3rd et al: An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Spine J. 9(7):609-14, 2009
                                      6. Weinstein JN et al: Surgical compared with nonoperative treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. four-year results in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) randomized and observational cohorts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(6):1295-304, 2009
                                      7. DiPaola CP et al: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 16(3):130-9, 2008
                                      8. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                      9. Kalichman L et al: Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Eur Spine J. 17(3):327-35, 2008
                                      10. Majid K et al: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: trends in management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 16(4):208-15, 2008
                                      11. Park P et al: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with reduction of spondylolisthesis: technique and outcomes after a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. Neurosurg Focus. 25(2):E16, 2008
                                      12. Martin CR et al: The surgical management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(16):1791-8, 2007
                                      13. Weinstein JN et al: Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. N Engl J Med. 356(22):2257-70, 2007
                                      14. Lamm M et al: Acute traumatic L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 16(6):524-7, 2003
                                      15. Pneumaticos SG et al: Scoliosis associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis: a case presentation and review of the literature. Spine J. 3(4):321-4, 2003
                                      16. Bassewitz H et al: Lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis: current concepts of surgical treatment. Clin Orthop. (384):54-60, 2001
                                      17. Nizard RS et al: Radiologic assessment of lumbar intervertebral instability and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(1):55-71, v-vi, 2001
                                      18. Cinotti G et al: Predisposing factors in degenerative spondylolisthesis. A radiographic and CT study. Int Orthop. 21(5):337-42, 1997
                                      19. Herkowitz HN: Spine update. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Spine. 20(9):1084-90, 1995
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Displacement of vertebral body, described relative to inferior vertebra
                                                  • Anterolisthesis: Anterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                                                  • Retrolisthesis: Posterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                                                  • Spondyloptosis: Vertebral body displaced completely anteriorly, with inferior displacement to level of one below
                                                • Degenerative spondylolisthesis describes anterior slippage of vertebral body on another in presence of intact neural arch

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Smorgick Y et al: Single-versus multilevel fusion for single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis and multilevel lumbar stenosis: four-year results of the spine patient outcomes research trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 38(10):797-805, 2013
                                                                          2. Lattig F et al: Lumbar facet joint effusion in MRI: a sign of instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis? Eur Spine J. 21(2):276-81, 2012
                                                                          3. Sansur CA et al: Morbidity and mortality in the surgical treatment of 10,242 adults with spondylolisthesis. J Neurosurg Spine. 13(5):589-93, 2010
                                                                          4. Ekman P et al: Predictive factors for the outcome of fusion in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(11):1204-10, 2009
                                                                          5. Watters WC 3rd et al: An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Spine J. 9(7):609-14, 2009
                                                                          6. Weinstein JN et al: Surgical compared with nonoperative treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. four-year results in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) randomized and observational cohorts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(6):1295-304, 2009
                                                                          7. DiPaola CP et al: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 16(3):130-9, 2008
                                                                          8. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                                                          9. Kalichman L et al: Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Eur Spine J. 17(3):327-35, 2008
                                                                          10. Majid K et al: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: trends in management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 16(4):208-15, 2008
                                                                          11. Park P et al: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with reduction of spondylolisthesis: technique and outcomes after a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. Neurosurg Focus. 25(2):E16, 2008
                                                                          12. Martin CR et al: The surgical management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(16):1791-8, 2007
                                                                          13. Weinstein JN et al: Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. N Engl J Med. 356(22):2257-70, 2007
                                                                          14. Lamm M et al: Acute traumatic L5-S1 spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 16(6):524-7, 2003
                                                                          15. Pneumaticos SG et al: Scoliosis associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis: a case presentation and review of the literature. Spine J. 3(4):321-4, 2003
                                                                          16. Bassewitz H et al: Lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis: current concepts of surgical treatment. Clin Orthop. (384):54-60, 2001
                                                                          17. Nizard RS et al: Radiologic assessment of lumbar intervertebral instability and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Radiol Clin North Am. 39(1):55-71, v-vi, 2001
                                                                          18. Cinotti G et al: Predisposing factors in degenerative spondylolisthesis. A radiographic and CT study. Int Orthop. 21(5):337-42, 1997
                                                                          19. Herkowitz HN: Spine update. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Spine. 20(9):1084-90, 1995