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Spondylolisthesis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Spondylolisthesis: Displacement of vertebral body, described relative to inferior vertebra
                  • Anterolisthesis: Anterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                  • Retrolisthesis: Posterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                  • Spondyloptosis: Vertebral body displaced completely anteriorly, with inferior displacement relative to level of vertebral body below
                • Degenerative spondylolisthesis: Anterior slippage of one body on another in presence of intact neural arch
                  • Uncommon in children and adolescents

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Goda Y et al: Analysis of MRI signal changes in the adjacent pedicle of adolescent patients with fresh lumbar spondylolysis. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                            2. Lundine KM et al: Patient outcomes in the operative and nonoperative management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(5):483-9, 2014
                                            3. Beck NA et al: Do oblique views add value in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in adolescents? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(10):e65, 2013
                                            4. El Rassi G et al: Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 92(12):1070-4, 2013
                                            5. Garet M et al: Nonoperative treatment in lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: a systematic review. Sports Health. 5(3):225-32, 2013
                                            6. Miller R et al: Imaging modalities for low back pain in children: a review of spondyloysis and undiagnosed mechanical back pain. J Pediatr Orthop. 33(3):282-8, 2013
                                            7. Kasliwal MK et al: Short-term complications associated with surgery for high-grade spondylolisthesis in adults and pediatric patients: a report from the scoliosis research society morbidity and mortality database. Neurosurgery. 71(1):109-16, 2012
                                            8. Gottschlich LM et al: Spine injuries in dancers. Curr Sports Med Rep. 10(1):40-4, 2011
                                            9. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                            10. Cavalier R et al: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents: I. Diagnosis, natural history, and nonsurgical management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 14(7):417-24, 2006
                                            11. Waicus KM et al: Back injuries in the pediatric athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 1(1):52-8, 2002
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Spondylolisthesis: Displacement of vertebral body, described relative to inferior vertebra
                                                            • Anterolisthesis: Anterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                                                            • Retrolisthesis: Posterior displacement of vertebral body relative to one below
                                                            • Spondyloptosis: Vertebral body displaced completely anteriorly, with inferior displacement relative to level of vertebral body below
                                                          • Degenerative spondylolisthesis: Anterior slippage of one body on another in presence of intact neural arch
                                                            • Uncommon in children and adolescents

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Goda Y et al: Analysis of MRI signal changes in the adjacent pedicle of adolescent patients with fresh lumbar spondylolysis. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                                                                      2. Lundine KM et al: Patient outcomes in the operative and nonoperative management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 34(5):483-9, 2014
                                                                                      3. Beck NA et al: Do oblique views add value in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in adolescents? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(10):e65, 2013
                                                                                      4. El Rassi G et al: Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 92(12):1070-4, 2013
                                                                                      5. Garet M et al: Nonoperative treatment in lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: a systematic review. Sports Health. 5(3):225-32, 2013
                                                                                      6. Miller R et al: Imaging modalities for low back pain in children: a review of spondyloysis and undiagnosed mechanical back pain. J Pediatr Orthop. 33(3):282-8, 2013
                                                                                      7. Kasliwal MK et al: Short-term complications associated with surgery for high-grade spondylolisthesis in adults and pediatric patients: a report from the scoliosis research society morbidity and mortality database. Neurosurgery. 71(1):109-16, 2012
                                                                                      8. Gottschlich LM et al: Spine injuries in dancers. Curr Sports Med Rep. 10(1):40-4, 2011
                                                                                      9. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                                                                      10. Cavalier R et al: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents: I. Diagnosis, natural history, and nonsurgical management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 14(7):417-24, 2006
                                                                                      11. Waicus KM et al: Back injuries in the pediatric athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 1(1):52-8, 2002