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Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
Christopher G. Anton, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Lysis, isthmic spondylolysis
        • Definitions

          • Spondylolysis: Defect/break in pars interarticularis
            • Repetitive microtrauma is likely etiology
          • Spondylolisthesis: Spondylolysis + anterior slippage of vertebral body in relation to vertebra below

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                Selected References

                                1. Chung CC et al: Lumbosacral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Clin Sports Med. 40(3):471-90, 2021
                                2. Achar S et al: Back pain in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician. 102(1):19-28, 2020
                                3. Manfrè L et al: Percutaneous CT-guided lumbar trans-facet pedicle screw fixation in lumbar microinstability syndrome: feasibility of a novel approach. Neuroradiology. 62(9):1133-40, 2020
                                4. Therriault T et al: Development of a preliminary multivariable diagnostic prediction model for identifying active spondylolysis in young athletes with low back pain. Phys Ther Sport. 45:1-6, 2020
                                5. Berger RG et al: Spondylolysis 2019 update. Curr Opin Pediatr. 31(1):61-8, 2019
                                6. Finkenstaedt T et al: Ultrashort time-to-echo magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T for the detection of spondylolysis in cadaveric spines: comparison with CT. Invest Radiol. 54(1):32-8, 2019
                                7. Lemoine T et al: The prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis in young children: a retrospective analysis using CT. Eur Spine J. 27(5):1067-72, 2018
                                8. Nitta A et al: Prevalence of symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis in pediatric patients. Orthopedics. 1-4, 2016
                                9. Bouras T et al: Management of spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. a comprehensive review. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 25 Suppl 1:S167-75, 2015
                                10. Gum JL et al: Characteristics associated with active defects in juvenile spondylolysis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 44(10):E379-83, 2015
                                11. Leonidou A et al: Treatment for spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 23(3):379-82, 2015
                                12. Trout AT et al: Spondylolysis and beyond: value of SPECT/CT in evaluation of low back pain in children and young adults. Radiographics. 35(3):819-34, 2015
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Clinical Issues

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Lysis, isthmic spondylolysis
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Spondylolysis: Defect/break in pars interarticularis
                                          • Repetitive microtrauma is likely etiology
                                        • Spondylolisthesis: Spondylolysis + anterior slippage of vertebral body in relation to vertebra below

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Treatment

                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Chung CC et al: Lumbosacral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Clin Sports Med. 40(3):471-90, 2021
                                                              2. Achar S et al: Back pain in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician. 102(1):19-28, 2020
                                                              3. Manfrè L et al: Percutaneous CT-guided lumbar trans-facet pedicle screw fixation in lumbar microinstability syndrome: feasibility of a novel approach. Neuroradiology. 62(9):1133-40, 2020
                                                              4. Therriault T et al: Development of a preliminary multivariable diagnostic prediction model for identifying active spondylolysis in young athletes with low back pain. Phys Ther Sport. 45:1-6, 2020
                                                              5. Berger RG et al: Spondylolysis 2019 update. Curr Opin Pediatr. 31(1):61-8, 2019
                                                              6. Finkenstaedt T et al: Ultrashort time-to-echo magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T for the detection of spondylolysis in cadaveric spines: comparison with CT. Invest Radiol. 54(1):32-8, 2019
                                                              7. Lemoine T et al: The prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis in young children: a retrospective analysis using CT. Eur Spine J. 27(5):1067-72, 2018
                                                              8. Nitta A et al: Prevalence of symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis in pediatric patients. Orthopedics. 1-4, 2016
                                                              9. Bouras T et al: Management of spondylolysis and low-grade spondylolisthesis in fine athletes. a comprehensive review. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 25 Suppl 1:S167-75, 2015
                                                              10. Gum JL et al: Characteristics associated with active defects in juvenile spondylolysis. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 44(10):E379-83, 2015
                                                              11. Leonidou A et al: Treatment for spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 23(3):379-82, 2015
                                                              12. Trout AT et al: Spondylolysis and beyond: value of SPECT/CT in evaluation of low back pain in children and young adults. Radiographics. 35(3):819-34, 2015