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Spondylolysis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Isthmic spondylolysis
              • Definitions

                • Defects in pars interarticularis (PI) thought to result from repetitive stress injury

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nonvascular Interventions

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Alton TB et al: Pediatric cervical spondylolysis and American football. Spine J. 14(6):e1-5, 2014
                                            2. Darnis A et al: Surgical management of multilevel lumbar spondylolysis: A case report and review of the literature. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 100(3):347-51, 2014
                                            3. Goda Y et al: Analysis of MRI signal changes in the adjacent pedicle of adolescent patients with fresh lumbar spondylolysis. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                            4. Beck NA et al: Do oblique views add value in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in adolescents? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(10):e65, 2013
                                            5. Chen MR et al: Anatomic variability of 120 L5 spondylolytic defects. Global Spine J. 3(4):243-8, 2013
                                            6. El Rassi G et al: Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 92(12):1070-4, 2013
                                            7. Oh YM et al: The comparison of sagittal spinopelvic parameters between young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis and age-matched control group. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 54(3):207-10, 2013
                                            8. Yamaguchi KT Jr et al: Spondylolysis is frequently missed by MRI in adolescents with back pain. J Child Orthop. 6(3):237-40, 2012
                                            9. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                            10. Park P et al: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with reduction of spondylolisthesis: technique and outcomes after a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. Neurosurg Focus. 25(2):E16, 2008
                                            11. McTimoney CA et al: Current evaluation and management of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2(1):41-6, 2003
                                            12. Merbs CF: Asymmetrical spondylolysis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 119(2):156-74, 2002
                                            13. Logroscino G et al: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in the pediatric and adolescent population. Childs Nerv Syst. 17(11):644-55, 2001
                                            14. Standaert CJ et al: Spondylolysis. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 11(4):785-803, 2000
                                            15. Saifuddin A et al: The value of lumbar spine MRI in the assessment of the pars interarticularis. Clin Radiol. 52(9):666-71, 1997
                                            16. Rossi F et al: Lumbar spondylolysis: occurrence in competitive athletes. Updated achievements in a series of 390 cases. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 30(4):450-2, 1990
                                            17. Johnson DW et al: MR imaging of the pars interarticularis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 152(2):327-32, 1989
                                            18. Rossi F: Spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and sports. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 18(4):317-40, 1978
                                            19. Wiltse LL et al: Classification of spondylolisis and spondylolisthesis. Clin Orthop. (117):23-9, 1976
                                            20. Wiltse LL: Spondylolisthesis. West J Med. 122(2):152-3, 1975
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Isthmic spondylolysis
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Defects in pars interarticularis (PI) thought to result from repetitive stress injury

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nonvascular Interventions

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Alton TB et al: Pediatric cervical spondylolysis and American football. Spine J. 14(6):e1-5, 2014
                                                                                      2. Darnis A et al: Surgical management of multilevel lumbar spondylolysis: A case report and review of the literature. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 100(3):347-51, 2014
                                                                                      3. Goda Y et al: Analysis of MRI signal changes in the adjacent pedicle of adolescent patients with fresh lumbar spondylolysis. Eur Spine J. Epub ahead of print, 2014
                                                                                      4. Beck NA et al: Do oblique views add value in the diagnosis of spondylolysis in adolescents? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 95(10):e65, 2013
                                                                                      5. Chen MR et al: Anatomic variability of 120 L5 spondylolytic defects. Global Spine J. 3(4):243-8, 2013
                                                                                      6. El Rassi G et al: Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 92(12):1070-4, 2013
                                                                                      7. Oh YM et al: The comparison of sagittal spinopelvic parameters between young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis and age-matched control group. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 54(3):207-10, 2013
                                                                                      8. Yamaguchi KT Jr et al: Spondylolysis is frequently missed by MRI in adolescents with back pain. J Child Orthop. 6(3):237-40, 2012
                                                                                      9. Don AS et al: Facet joint orientation in spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. J Spinal Disord Tech. 21(2):112-5, 2008
                                                                                      10. Park P et al: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with reduction of spondylolisthesis: technique and outcomes after a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. Neurosurg Focus. 25(2):E16, 2008
                                                                                      11. McTimoney CA et al: Current evaluation and management of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2(1):41-6, 2003
                                                                                      12. Merbs CF: Asymmetrical spondylolysis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 119(2):156-74, 2002
                                                                                      13. Logroscino G et al: Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in the pediatric and adolescent population. Childs Nerv Syst. 17(11):644-55, 2001
                                                                                      14. Standaert CJ et al: Spondylolysis. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 11(4):785-803, 2000
                                                                                      15. Saifuddin A et al: The value of lumbar spine MRI in the assessment of the pars interarticularis. Clin Radiol. 52(9):666-71, 1997
                                                                                      16. Rossi F et al: Lumbar spondylolysis: occurrence in competitive athletes. Updated achievements in a series of 390 cases. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 30(4):450-2, 1990
                                                                                      17. Johnson DW et al: MR imaging of the pars interarticularis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 152(2):327-32, 1989
                                                                                      18. Rossi F: Spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and sports. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 18(4):317-40, 1978
                                                                                      19. Wiltse LL et al: Classification of spondylolisis and spondylolisthesis. Clin Orthop. (117):23-9, 1976
                                                                                      20. Wiltse LL: Spondylolisthesis. West J Med. 122(2):152-3, 1975