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Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Aidan Burke, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of head and neck (H&N)
            • Develops from squamous cells lining mucous membranes of H&N
            • Nasopharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid gland, and unknown primary

        IMAGING

        • F-18 FDG PET/CT

          • CT Findings

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                  • Presentation

                    • Demographics

                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                        • Treatment

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Consider

                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                              Selected References

                              1. Kim SA et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT surveillance for the detection of recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer. Eur J Cancer. 72:62-70, 2017
                              2. Cacicedo J et al: Role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in head and neck oncology: the point of view of the radiation oncologist. Br J Radiol. 89(1067):20160217, 2016
                              3. Lim RS et al: Utility of SUVmax on 18 F-FDG PET in detecting cervical nodal metastases. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):39, 2016
                              4. Hoang JK et al: Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer with CT and MRI: tips, traps, and a systematic approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(1):W17-25, 2013
                              5. Dammann F et al: Rational diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region: comparative evaluation of CT, MRI, and 18FDG PET. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(4):1326-31, 2005
                              6. Dobert N et al: The prognostic value of FDG PET in head and neck cancer. Correlation with histopathology. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 49(3):253-7, 2005
                              7. Yen TC et al: Staging of untreated squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa with 18F-FDG PET: comparison with head and neck CT/MRI and histopathology. J Nucl Med. 46(5):775-81, 2005
                              8. Zanation AM et al: Use, accuracy, and implications for patient management of [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission/computerized tomography for head and neck tumors. Laryngoscope. 115(7):1186-90, 2005
                              9. Daisne JF et al: Tumor volume in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison at CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET and validation with surgical specimen. Radiology. 233(1):93-100, 2004
                              10. Schoder H et al: Positron emission imaging of head and neck cancer, including thyroid carcinoma. Semin Nucl Med. 34(3):180-97, 2004
                              11. Goerres GW et al: Impact of whole body positron emission tomography on initial staging and therapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol. 39(6):547-51, 2003
                              12. Schmid DT et al: Impact of positron emission tomography on the initial staging and therapy in locoregional advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 113(5):888-91, 2003
                              13. Schwartz DL et al: Staging of head and neck squamous cell cancer with extended-field FDG-PET. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(11):1173-8, 2003
                              14. Sigg MB et al: Staging of head and neck tumors: [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography compared with physical examination and conventional imaging modalities. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 61(9):1022-9, 2003
                              15. Brink I et al: Lymph node staging in extracranial head and neck cancer with FDG PET--appropriate uptake period and size-dependence of the results. Nuklearmedizin. 41(2):108-13, 2002
                              16. Hannah A et al: Evaluation of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography with histopathologic correlation in the initial staging of head and neck cancer. Ann Surg. 236(2):208-17, 2002
                              17. Stoeckli SJ et al: Is there a role for positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the initial staging of nodal negative oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 24(4):345-9, 2002
                              18. Kresnik E et al: Evaluation of head and neck cancer with 18F-FDG PET: a comparison with conventional methods. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(7):816-21, 2001
                              Related Anatomy
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                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                              References
                              Tables

                              Tables

                              KEY FACTS

                              • Terminology

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of head and neck (H&N)
                                        • Develops from squamous cells lining mucous membranes of H&N
                                        • Nasopharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid gland, and unknown primary

                                    IMAGING

                                    • F-18 FDG PET/CT

                                      • CT Findings

                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                          PATHOLOGY

                                          • General Features

                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                              • Presentation

                                                • Demographics

                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                    • Treatment

                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                      • Consider

                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                          Selected References

                                                          1. Kim SA et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT surveillance for the detection of recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer. Eur J Cancer. 72:62-70, 2017
                                                          2. Cacicedo J et al: Role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in head and neck oncology: the point of view of the radiation oncologist. Br J Radiol. 89(1067):20160217, 2016
                                                          3. Lim RS et al: Utility of SUVmax on 18 F-FDG PET in detecting cervical nodal metastases. Cancer Imaging. 16(1):39, 2016
                                                          4. Hoang JK et al: Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer with CT and MRI: tips, traps, and a systematic approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(1):W17-25, 2013
                                                          5. Dammann F et al: Rational diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region: comparative evaluation of CT, MRI, and 18FDG PET. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(4):1326-31, 2005
                                                          6. Dobert N et al: The prognostic value of FDG PET in head and neck cancer. Correlation with histopathology. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 49(3):253-7, 2005
                                                          7. Yen TC et al: Staging of untreated squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa with 18F-FDG PET: comparison with head and neck CT/MRI and histopathology. J Nucl Med. 46(5):775-81, 2005
                                                          8. Zanation AM et al: Use, accuracy, and implications for patient management of [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission/computerized tomography for head and neck tumors. Laryngoscope. 115(7):1186-90, 2005
                                                          9. Daisne JF et al: Tumor volume in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison at CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET and validation with surgical specimen. Radiology. 233(1):93-100, 2004
                                                          10. Schoder H et al: Positron emission imaging of head and neck cancer, including thyroid carcinoma. Semin Nucl Med. 34(3):180-97, 2004
                                                          11. Goerres GW et al: Impact of whole body positron emission tomography on initial staging and therapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol. 39(6):547-51, 2003
                                                          12. Schmid DT et al: Impact of positron emission tomography on the initial staging and therapy in locoregional advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 113(5):888-91, 2003
                                                          13. Schwartz DL et al: Staging of head and neck squamous cell cancer with extended-field FDG-PET. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(11):1173-8, 2003
                                                          14. Sigg MB et al: Staging of head and neck tumors: [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography compared with physical examination and conventional imaging modalities. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 61(9):1022-9, 2003
                                                          15. Brink I et al: Lymph node staging in extracranial head and neck cancer with FDG PET--appropriate uptake period and size-dependence of the results. Nuklearmedizin. 41(2):108-13, 2002
                                                          16. Hannah A et al: Evaluation of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography with histopathologic correlation in the initial staging of head and neck cancer. Ann Surg. 236(2):208-17, 2002
                                                          17. Stoeckli SJ et al: Is there a role for positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the initial staging of nodal negative oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 24(4):345-9, 2002
                                                          18. Kresnik E et al: Evaluation of head and neck cancer with 18F-FDG PET: a comparison with conventional methods. Eur J Nucl Med. 28(7):816-21, 2001