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Staging: Adrenal Gland
Marta Heilbrun, MD, MS
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OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer History

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                • Rule Out Other Adrenal Tumors

                                  • Vascular Involvement

                                    Selected References

                                    1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 515-20, 2010
                                    2. Bauditz J et al: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep. 19(5):1135-9, 2008
                                    3. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                    4. Fareau GG et al: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract. 13(6):636-41, 2007
                                    5. Leboulleux S et al: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(3):920-5, 2006
                                    6. Mackie GC et al: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(7):2665-71, 2006
                                    7. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                    8. Elsayes KM et al: Adrenal masses: mr imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24 Suppl 1:S73-86, 2004
                                    9. Aubert S et al: Weiss system revisited: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 49 adrenocortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12):1612-9, 2002
                                    10. Lockhart ME et al: Imaging of adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol. 41(2):95-112, 2002
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    OVERVIEW

                                    • General Comments

                                      • Classification

                                        PATHOLOGY

                                        • Routes Spread

                                          • General Features

                                            • Gross Pathology

                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                IMAGING FINDINGS

                                                • Detection

                                                  • Staging

                                                    • Restaging

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Cancer History

                                                          • Treatment Options

                                                            REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                            • T Staging

                                                              • N Staging

                                                                • M Staging

                                                                  • Rule Out Other Adrenal Tumors

                                                                    • Vascular Involvement

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 515-20, 2010
                                                                      2. Bauditz J et al: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep. 19(5):1135-9, 2008
                                                                      3. Bilimoria KY et al: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 113(11):3130-6, 2008
                                                                      4. Fareau GG et al: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract. 13(6):636-41, 2007
                                                                      5. Leboulleux S et al: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(3):920-5, 2006
                                                                      6. Mackie GC et al: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 91(7):2665-71, 2006
                                                                      7. Szolar DH et al: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology. 234(2):479-85, 2005
                                                                      8. Elsayes KM et al: Adrenal masses: mr imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 24 Suppl 1:S73-86, 2004
                                                                      9. Aubert S et al: Weiss system revisited: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 49 adrenocortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 26(12):1612-9, 2002
                                                                      10. Lockhart ME et al: Imaging of adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol. 41(2):95-112, 2002