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Staging: Anal Canal Carcinoma
Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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Tumor Staging

  • T Stage

    • N Stage

      • M Stage

        • Stage Grouping

          • Organ Frequency

            Overview

            • General Comments

              • Classification

                Pathology

                • Routes Spread

                  • General Features

                    • Gross Pathology

                      • Microscopic Features

                        Imaging Findings

                        • Detection

                          • Staging

                            • Restaging

                              Clinical Issues

                              • Presentation

                                • Cancer History

                                  • Treatment Options

                                    Reporting Checklist

                                    • T Staging

                                      • N Staging

                                        • M Staging

                                          Selected References

                                          1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 165-73, 2010
                                          2. Engledow AH et al: The role of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Colorectal Dis. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                          3. Goh V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                          4. McMahon CJ et al: Lymphatic metastases from pelvic tumors: anatomic classification, characterization, and staging. Radiology. 254(1):31-46, 2010
                                          5. Bilimoria KY et al: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum. 52(4):624-31, 2009
                                          6. Glynne-Jones R et al: Anal cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 20 Suppl 4:57-60, 2009
                                          7. Otto SD et al: Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. J Gastrointest Surg. 13(7):1292-8, 2009
                                          8. Winton E et al: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer. 100(5):693-700, 2009
                                          9. Koh DM et al: Pelvic phased-array MR imaging of anal carcinoma before and after chemoradiation. Br J Radiol. 81(962):91-8, 2008
                                          10. Uronis HE et al: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist. 12(5):524-34, 2007
                                          11. Cotter SE et al: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 65(3):720-5, 2006
                                          12. Trautmann TG et al: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol. 7(4):309-13, 2005
                                          13. Ryan DP et al: Carcinoma of the anal canal. N Engl J Med. 342(11):792-800, 2000
                                          14. Klas JV et al: Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment, and outcomes. Cancer. 85(8):1686-93, 1999
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          Tumor Staging

                                          • T Stage

                                            • N Stage

                                              • M Stage

                                                • Stage Grouping

                                                  • Organ Frequency

                                                    Overview

                                                    • General Comments

                                                      • Classification

                                                        Pathology

                                                        • Routes Spread

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathology

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                Imaging Findings

                                                                • Detection

                                                                  • Staging

                                                                    • Restaging

                                                                      Clinical Issues

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Cancer History

                                                                          • Treatment Options

                                                                            Reporting Checklist

                                                                            • T Staging

                                                                              • N Staging

                                                                                • M Staging

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 165-73, 2010
                                                                                  2. Engledow AH et al: The role of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Colorectal Dis. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                                  3. Goh V et al: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Epub ahead of print, 2010
                                                                                  4. McMahon CJ et al: Lymphatic metastases from pelvic tumors: anatomic classification, characterization, and staging. Radiology. 254(1):31-46, 2010
                                                                                  5. Bilimoria KY et al: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum. 52(4):624-31, 2009
                                                                                  6. Glynne-Jones R et al: Anal cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 20 Suppl 4:57-60, 2009
                                                                                  7. Otto SD et al: Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. J Gastrointest Surg. 13(7):1292-8, 2009
                                                                                  8. Winton E et al: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer. 100(5):693-700, 2009
                                                                                  9. Koh DM et al: Pelvic phased-array MR imaging of anal carcinoma before and after chemoradiation. Br J Radiol. 81(962):91-8, 2008
                                                                                  10. Uronis HE et al: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist. 12(5):524-34, 2007
                                                                                  11. Cotter SE et al: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 65(3):720-5, 2006
                                                                                  12. Trautmann TG et al: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol. 7(4):309-13, 2005
                                                                                  13. Ryan DP et al: Carcinoma of the anal canal. N Engl J Med. 342(11):792-800, 2000
                                                                                  14. Klas JV et al: Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment, and outcomes. Cancer. 85(8):1686-93, 1999