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Staging: Kidney
Todd M. Blodgett, MD; Karl Yaeger, MD; Vineet Krishan Khanna, MD
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6

OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes spread

        • General Features

          • Gross pathology

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer history

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 479-89, 2010
                                2. Bach AM et al: Contemporary radiologic imaging of renal cortical tumors. Urol Clin North Am. 35(4):593-604; vi, 2008
                                3. Hinshaw JL et al: Comparison of percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation for the treatment of solid renal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1159-68, 2008
                                4. Zhang J et al: Imaging of kidney cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):119-47, 2007
                                5. Blitman NM et al: Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(1):268-72, 2005
                                6. Ergen FB et al: MRI for preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma using the 1997 TNM classification: comparison with surgical and pathologic staging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):217-25, 2004
                                7. Reznek RH: CT/MRI in staging renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 4 Spec No A:S25-32, 2004
                                8. Israel GM et al: Renal imaging for diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am. 30(3):499-514, 2003
                                9. Walter C et al: Imaging of renal lesions: evaluation of fast MRI and helical CT. Br J Radiol. 76(910):696-703, 2003
                                10. Kim JK et al: Differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma on helical CT scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(6):1499-506, 2002
                                11. Ramdave S et al: Clinical role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection and management of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(3):825-30, 2001
                                12. Vasselli JR et al: Lack of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy predicts survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(1):68-72, 2001
                                13. Coll DM et al: 3-dimensional volume rendered computerized tomography for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative treatment of patients undergoing nephron sparing surgery. J Urol. 161(4):1097-102, 1999
                                14. Bechtold RE et al: Imaging approach to staging of renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am. 24(3):507-22, 1997
                                15. Kopka L et al: Dual-phase helical CT of the kidney: value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase for evaluation of renal lesions and preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1573-8, 1997
                                16. Jamis-Dow CA et al: Small (< or = 3-cm) renal masses: detection with CT versus US and pathologic correlation. Radiology. 198(3):785-8, 1996
                                17. Curry NS: Small renal masses (lesions smaller than 3 cm): imaging evaluation and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(2):355-62, 1995
                                18. Newhouse JH: The radiologic evaluation of the patient with renal cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 20(2):231-46, 1993
                                19. Yamashita Y et al: Small renal cell carcinoma: pathologic and radiologic correlation. Radiology. 184(2):493-8, 1992
                                20. McClennan BL: Oncologic imaging. Staging and follow-up of renal and adrenal carcinoma. Cancer. 67(4 Suppl):1199-208, 1991
                                21. Fein AB et al: Diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma: a comparison of MR imaging and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(4):749-53, 1987
                                22. Hricak H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of renal and perirenal neoplasms. Radiology. 154(3):709-15, 1985
                                23. Mauro MA et al: Renal cell carcinoma: angiography in the CT era. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 139(6):1135-8, 1982
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross pathology

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer history

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 479-89, 2010
                                                              2. Bach AM et al: Contemporary radiologic imaging of renal cortical tumors. Urol Clin North Am. 35(4):593-604; vi, 2008
                                                              3. Hinshaw JL et al: Comparison of percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation for the treatment of solid renal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(4):1159-68, 2008
                                                              4. Zhang J et al: Imaging of kidney cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):119-47, 2007
                                                              5. Blitman NM et al: Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(1):268-72, 2005
                                                              6. Ergen FB et al: MRI for preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma using the 1997 TNM classification: comparison with surgical and pathologic staging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(1):217-25, 2004
                                                              7. Reznek RH: CT/MRI in staging renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Imaging. 4 Spec No A:S25-32, 2004
                                                              8. Israel GM et al: Renal imaging for diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am. 30(3):499-514, 2003
                                                              9. Walter C et al: Imaging of renal lesions: evaluation of fast MRI and helical CT. Br J Radiol. 76(910):696-703, 2003
                                                              10. Kim JK et al: Differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma on helical CT scans. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(6):1499-506, 2002
                                                              11. Ramdave S et al: Clinical role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detection and management of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(3):825-30, 2001
                                                              12. Vasselli JR et al: Lack of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy predicts survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 166(1):68-72, 2001
                                                              13. Coll DM et al: 3-dimensional volume rendered computerized tomography for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative treatment of patients undergoing nephron sparing surgery. J Urol. 161(4):1097-102, 1999
                                                              14. Bechtold RE et al: Imaging approach to staging of renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am. 24(3):507-22, 1997
                                                              15. Kopka L et al: Dual-phase helical CT of the kidney: value of the corticomedullary and nephrographic phase for evaluation of renal lesions and preoperative staging of renal cell carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 169(6):1573-8, 1997
                                                              16. Jamis-Dow CA et al: Small (< or = 3-cm) renal masses: detection with CT versus US and pathologic correlation. Radiology. 198(3):785-8, 1996
                                                              17. Curry NS: Small renal masses (lesions smaller than 3 cm): imaging evaluation and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 164(2):355-62, 1995
                                                              18. Newhouse JH: The radiologic evaluation of the patient with renal cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 20(2):231-46, 1993
                                                              19. Yamashita Y et al: Small renal cell carcinoma: pathologic and radiologic correlation. Radiology. 184(2):493-8, 1992
                                                              20. McClennan BL: Oncologic imaging. Staging and follow-up of renal and adrenal carcinoma. Cancer. 67(4 Suppl):1199-208, 1991
                                                              21. Fein AB et al: Diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma: a comparison of MR imaging and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 148(4):749-53, 1987
                                                              22. Hricak H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of renal and perirenal neoplasms. Radiology. 154(3):709-15, 1985
                                                              23. Mauro MA et al: Renal cell carcinoma: angiography in the CT era. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 139(6):1135-8, 1982