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Staging: Urinary Bladder
Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh
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OVERVIEW

  • General Comments

    • Classification

      PATHOLOGY

      • Routes Spread

        • General Features

          • Gross Pathology

            • Microscopic Features

              IMAGING FINDINGS

              • Detection

                • Staging

                  • Restaging

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Cancer History

                        • Treatment Options

                          REPORTING CHECKLIST

                          • T Staging

                            • N Staging

                              • M Staging

                                Selected References

                                1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 497-505, 2010
                                2. Abou-El-Ghar ME et al: Bladder cancer: diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with gross hematuria. Radiology. 251(2):415-21, 2009
                                3. Koster IM et al: Best cases from the AFIP: urachal carcinoma. Radiographics. 29(3):939-42, 2009
                                4. Takeuchi M et al: Urinary bladder cancer: diffusion-weighted MR imaging--accuracy for diagnosing T stage and estimating histologic grade. Radiology. 251(1):112-21, 2009
                                5. Tuncbilek N et al: Value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and correlation with tumor angiogenesis in bladder cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):949-55, 2009
                                6. Watanabe H et al: Preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer: does diffusion-weighted MRI have supplementary value? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1361-6, 2009
                                7. Canter D et al: Hydronephrosis is an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome in patients treated for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with radical cystectomy. Urology. 72(2):379-83, 2008
                                8. Sadow CA et al: Bladder cancer detection with CT urography in an Academic Medical Center. Radiology. 249(1):195-202, 2008
                                9. Matsuki M et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for urinary bladder carcinoma: initial results. Eur Radiol. 17(1):201-4, 2007
                                10. Zhang J et al: Imaging of bladder cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):183-205, 2007
                                11. Wong-You-Cheong JJ et al: From the Archives of the AFIP: neoplasms of the urinary bladder: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(2):553-80, 2006
                                12. Tekes A et al: Dynamic MRI of bladder cancer: evaluation of staging accuracy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):121-7, 2005
                                13. Tekes A et al: MR imaging features of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):771-7, 2003
                                14. Wallmeroth A et al: Patterns of metastasis in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pT2-4): An autopsy study on 367 patients. Urol Int. 62(2):69-75, 1999
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                OVERVIEW

                                • General Comments

                                  • Classification

                                    PATHOLOGY

                                    • Routes Spread

                                      • General Features

                                        • Gross Pathology

                                          • Microscopic Features

                                            IMAGING FINDINGS

                                            • Detection

                                              • Staging

                                                • Restaging

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Cancer History

                                                      • Treatment Options

                                                        REPORTING CHECKLIST

                                                        • T Staging

                                                          • N Staging

                                                            • M Staging

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 497-505, 2010
                                                              2. Abou-El-Ghar ME et al: Bladder cancer: diagnosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with gross hematuria. Radiology. 251(2):415-21, 2009
                                                              3. Koster IM et al: Best cases from the AFIP: urachal carcinoma. Radiographics. 29(3):939-42, 2009
                                                              4. Takeuchi M et al: Urinary bladder cancer: diffusion-weighted MR imaging--accuracy for diagnosing T stage and estimating histologic grade. Radiology. 251(1):112-21, 2009
                                                              5. Tuncbilek N et al: Value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and correlation with tumor angiogenesis in bladder cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(4):949-55, 2009
                                                              6. Watanabe H et al: Preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer: does diffusion-weighted MRI have supplementary value? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 192(5):1361-6, 2009
                                                              7. Canter D et al: Hydronephrosis is an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome in patients treated for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma with radical cystectomy. Urology. 72(2):379-83, 2008
                                                              8. Sadow CA et al: Bladder cancer detection with CT urography in an Academic Medical Center. Radiology. 249(1):195-202, 2008
                                                              9. Matsuki M et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for urinary bladder carcinoma: initial results. Eur Radiol. 17(1):201-4, 2007
                                                              10. Zhang J et al: Imaging of bladder cancer. Radiol Clin North Am. 45(1):183-205, 2007
                                                              11. Wong-You-Cheong JJ et al: From the Archives of the AFIP: neoplasms of the urinary bladder: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 26(2):553-80, 2006
                                                              12. Tekes A et al: Dynamic MRI of bladder cancer: evaluation of staging accuracy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 184(1):121-7, 2005
                                                              13. Tekes A et al: MR imaging features of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(3):771-7, 2003
                                                              14. Wallmeroth A et al: Patterns of metastasis in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pT2-4): An autopsy study on 367 patients. Urol Int. 62(2):69-75, 1999