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Subcortical Injury
Luke L. Linscott, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR; Gregory L. Katzman, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Subcortical injury (SCI)
              • Definitions

                • Traumatic lesions of brainstem (BS), basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and ventricles, composed of
                  • Deep diffuse axonal injury (DAI)-type SCI lesions
                  • Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
                  • Choroid hemorrhage (CH)

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Ferrazzano PA et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: assessment of current practice. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-9, 2019
                                            2. O'Phelan KH et al: Common patterns of regional brain injury detectable by diffusion tensor imaging in otherwise normal-appearing white matter in patients with early moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 35(5):739-49, 2018
                                            3. Haghbayan H et al: The prognostic value of MRI in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 45(12):e1280-8, 2017
                                            4. Haghbayan H et al: The prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Syst Rev. 5:10, 2016
                                            5. Corrigan JD et al: Components of traumatic brain injury severity indices. J Neurotrauma. 31(11):1000-7, 2014
                                            6. George EO et al: Longitudinal and prognostic evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury: A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Neurotrauma. 31(11):1018-28, 2014
                                            7. Laouchedi M et al: Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2014
                                            8. Liu J et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic cerebral microbleeds: an evaluation of imaging techniques. Neural Regen Res. 9(12):1222-30, 2014
                                            9. Sharp DJ et al: Network dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 10(3):156-66, 2014
                                            10. Fox WC et al: Contemporary imaging of mild TBI: the journey toward diffusion tensor imaging to assess neuronal damage. Neurol Res. 35(3):223-32, 2013
                                            11. Mamere AE et al: Evaluation of delayed neuronal and axonal damage secondary to moderate and severe traumatic brain injury using quantitative MR imaging techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(5):947-52, 2009
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Subcortical injury (SCI)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Traumatic lesions of brainstem (BS), basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and ventricles, composed of
                                                            • Deep diffuse axonal injury (DAI)-type SCI lesions
                                                            • Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)
                                                            • Choroid hemorrhage (CH)

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Ferrazzano PA et al: Use of magnetic resonance imaging in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: assessment of current practice. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-9, 2019
                                                                                      2. O'Phelan KH et al: Common patterns of regional brain injury detectable by diffusion tensor imaging in otherwise normal-appearing white matter in patients with early moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 35(5):739-49, 2018
                                                                                      3. Haghbayan H et al: The prognostic value of MRI in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 45(12):e1280-8, 2017
                                                                                      4. Haghbayan H et al: The prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Syst Rev. 5:10, 2016
                                                                                      5. Corrigan JD et al: Components of traumatic brain injury severity indices. J Neurotrauma. 31(11):1000-7, 2014
                                                                                      6. George EO et al: Longitudinal and prognostic evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury: A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Neurotrauma. 31(11):1018-28, 2014
                                                                                      7. Laouchedi M et al: Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neuroradiol. ePub, 2014
                                                                                      8. Liu J et al: Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic cerebral microbleeds: an evaluation of imaging techniques. Neural Regen Res. 9(12):1222-30, 2014
                                                                                      9. Sharp DJ et al: Network dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 10(3):156-66, 2014
                                                                                      10. Fox WC et al: Contemporary imaging of mild TBI: the journey toward diffusion tensor imaging to assess neuronal damage. Neurol Res. 35(3):223-32, 2013
                                                                                      11. Mamere AE et al: Evaluation of delayed neuronal and axonal damage secondary to moderate and severe traumatic brain injury using quantitative MR imaging techniques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(5):947-52, 2009