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Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
John H. Rees, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA)
            • Synonyms

              • Intraventricular astrocytoma of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)
            • Definitions

              • Benign, slow-growing glioneuronal tumor arising near foramen of Monro in patient with TSC

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Cardamone M et al: Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for intractable epilepsy and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Pediatr. 164(5):1195-200, 2014
                                              2. Harter DH et al: A management strategy for intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(1):21-8, 2014
                                              3. Ouyang T et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: current concepts, management, and future directions. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(4):561-70, 2014
                                              4. Krueger DA et al: Everolimus long-term safety and efficacy in subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Neurology. 80(6):574-80, 2013
                                              5. Buccoliero AM et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathology. 29(1):25-30, 2009
                                              6. Khayal IS et al: Characterization of low-grade gliomas using RGB color maps derived from ADC histograms. J Magn Reson Imaging. 30(1):209-13, 2009
                                              7. Voykov B et al: When tuberous sclerosis complex becomes an emergency. Can J Ophthalmol. 44(2):220-1, 2009
                                              8. Jozwiak J et al: Possible mechanisms of disease development in tuberous sclerosis. Lancet Oncol. 9(1):73-9, 2008
                                              9. Ess KC et al: Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurology. 64(8):1446-9, 2005
                                              10. You H et al: Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. J Neurooncol. 74(1):1-8, 2005
                                              11. Chan JA et al: Pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis subependymal giant cell astrocytomas: biallelic inactivation of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to mTOR activation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 63(12):1236-42, 2004
                                              12. Cuccia V et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in children with tuberous sclerosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 19(4):232-43, 2003
                                              13. Rashidi M et al: Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 3(3):200-5, 2003
                                              14. Sener RN: Diffusion MR imaging of giant cell tumors in tuberous sclerosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(3):431-3, 2003
                                              15. Koeller KK et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Cerebral intraventricular neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(6):1473-505, 2002
                                              16. Medhkour A et al: Neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 36(5):271-4, 2002
                                              17. Nishio S et al: Tumours around the foramen of Monro: clinical and neuroimaging features and their differential diagnosis. J Clin Neurosci. 9(2):137-41, 2002
                                              18. Yamamoto K et al: Rapid regrowth of solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 42(5):224-7, 2002
                                              19. Beems T et al: Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis: endoscopic images and the implications for therapy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 44(1):58-60, 2001
                                              20. Kim SK et al: Biological behavior and tumorigenesis of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. J Neurooncol. 52(3):217-25, 2001
                                              21. Kashiwagi N et al: Solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: case report. Eur J Radiol. 33(1):55-8, 2000
                                              22. Wiestler OD et al: Tuberous sclerosis complex and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. In Kleihues P et al: Tumours of the Nervous System. Lyon: IARC Press. 227-30, 2000
                                              23. Hirose T et al: Tuber and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron and microscopic study. Acta Neuropathol. 90(4):387-99, 1995
                                              24. Truhan AP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging. Its role in the neuroradiologic evaluation of neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 129(2):219-26, 1993
                                              25. Braffman BH et al: MR imaging of tuberous sclerosis: pathogenesis of this phakomatosis, use of gadopentetate dimeglumine, and literature review. Radiology. 183(1):227-38, 1992
                                              26. Cooper JR: Brain tumors in hereditary multiple system hamartomatosis (tuberous sclerosis). J Neurosurg. 34(2 Pt 1):194-202, 1971
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Intraventricular astrocytoma of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Benign, slow-growing glioneuronal tumor arising near foramen of Monro in patient with TSC

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Cardamone M et al: Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for intractable epilepsy and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Pediatr. 164(5):1195-200, 2014
                                                                                          2. Harter DH et al: A management strategy for intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 13(1):21-8, 2014
                                                                                          3. Ouyang T et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: current concepts, management, and future directions. Childs Nerv Syst. 30(4):561-70, 2014
                                                                                          4. Krueger DA et al: Everolimus long-term safety and efficacy in subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Neurology. 80(6):574-80, 2013
                                                                                          5. Buccoliero AM et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathology. 29(1):25-30, 2009
                                                                                          6. Khayal IS et al: Characterization of low-grade gliomas using RGB color maps derived from ADC histograms. J Magn Reson Imaging. 30(1):209-13, 2009
                                                                                          7. Voykov B et al: When tuberous sclerosis complex becomes an emergency. Can J Ophthalmol. 44(2):220-1, 2009
                                                                                          8. Jozwiak J et al: Possible mechanisms of disease development in tuberous sclerosis. Lancet Oncol. 9(1):73-9, 2008
                                                                                          9. Ess KC et al: Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurology. 64(8):1446-9, 2005
                                                                                          10. You H et al: Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. J Neurooncol. 74(1):1-8, 2005
                                                                                          11. Chan JA et al: Pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis subependymal giant cell astrocytomas: biallelic inactivation of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to mTOR activation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 63(12):1236-42, 2004
                                                                                          12. Cuccia V et al: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in children with tuberous sclerosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 19(4):232-43, 2003
                                                                                          13. Rashidi M et al: Nonmalignant pediatric brain tumors. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 3(3):200-5, 2003
                                                                                          14. Sener RN: Diffusion MR imaging of giant cell tumors in tuberous sclerosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(3):431-3, 2003
                                                                                          15. Koeller KK et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Cerebral intraventricular neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(6):1473-505, 2002
                                                                                          16. Medhkour A et al: Neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 36(5):271-4, 2002
                                                                                          17. Nishio S et al: Tumours around the foramen of Monro: clinical and neuroimaging features and their differential diagnosis. J Clin Neurosci. 9(2):137-41, 2002
                                                                                          18. Yamamoto K et al: Rapid regrowth of solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 42(5):224-7, 2002
                                                                                          19. Beems T et al: Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis: endoscopic images and the implications for therapy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 44(1):58-60, 2001
                                                                                          20. Kim SK et al: Biological behavior and tumorigenesis of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. J Neurooncol. 52(3):217-25, 2001
                                                                                          21. Kashiwagi N et al: Solitary subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: case report. Eur J Radiol. 33(1):55-8, 2000
                                                                                          22. Wiestler OD et al: Tuberous sclerosis complex and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. In Kleihues P et al: Tumours of the Nervous System. Lyon: IARC Press. 227-30, 2000
                                                                                          23. Hirose T et al: Tuber and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron and microscopic study. Acta Neuropathol. 90(4):387-99, 1995
                                                                                          24. Truhan AP et al: Magnetic resonance imaging. Its role in the neuroradiologic evaluation of neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 129(2):219-26, 1993
                                                                                          25. Braffman BH et al: MR imaging of tuberous sclerosis: pathogenesis of this phakomatosis, use of gadopentetate dimeglumine, and literature review. Radiology. 183(1):227-38, 1992
                                                                                          26. Cooper JR: Brain tumors in hereditary multiple system hamartomatosis (tuberous sclerosis). J Neurosurg. 34(2 Pt 1):194-202, 1971