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Subgenual Cingulate Cortex (Area 25)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Emotional Salience and Regulation

        • Moral Judgment

          • Valuation

            • Social Attachment

              • Mentalizing

                Structural Connections

                • 2 Subregions Based on Structural Connectivity

                  Functional Connections

                  • Coactive Regions

                    • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                      Area 25-Associated Disorders

                      • Depression

                        Selected References

                        1. McMullen DP: Where to target? The precision medicine approach to brain stimulation. Biol Psychiatry. 84(1):e1-2, 2018
                        2. Argyelan M et al: Subgenual cingulate cortical activity predicts the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy. Transl Psychiatry. 6:e789, 2016
                        3. Clark DL et al: Intrinsic local beta oscillations in the subgenual cingulate relate to depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry. 80(11):e93-4, 2016
                        4. Vergani F et al: Anatomic connections of the subgenual cingulate region. Neurosurgery. 79(3):465-72, 2016
                        5. Bratman GN et al: Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(28):8567-72, 2015
                        6. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                        7. Kravitz DJ et al: A new neural framework for visuospatial processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 12(4):217-30, 2011
                        8. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                        9. Harrison NA et al: Inflammation causes mood changes through alterations in subgenual cingulate activity and mesolimbic connectivity. Biol Psychiatry. 66(5):407-14, 2009
                        10. Matthews S et al: Inhibition-related activity in subgenual cingulate is associated with symptom severity in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 172(1):1-6, 2009
                        11. Zahn R et al: Subgenual cingulate activity reflects individual differences in empathic concern. Neurosci Lett. 457(2):107-10, 2009
                        12. Zahn R et al: The neural basis of human social values: evidence from functional MRI. Cereb Cortex. 19(2):276-83, 2009
                        13. Johansen-Berg H et al: Anatomical connectivity of the subgenual cingulate region targeted with deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Cereb Cortex. 18(6):1374-83, 2008
                        14. Fehr E et al: Social neuroeconomics: the neural circuitry of social preferences. Trends Cogn Sci. 11(10):419-27, 2007
                        15. Amodio DM et al: Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 7(4):268-77, 2006
                        16. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                        17. Rolls ET et al: Activity of primate subgenual cingulate cortex neurons is related to sleep. J Neurophysiol. 90(1):134-42, 2003
                        18. Botteron KN et al: Volumetric reduction in left subgenual prefrontal cortex in early onset depression. Biol Psychiatry. 51(4):342-4, 2002
                        19. Hirayasu Y et al: Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 156(7):1091-3, 1999
                        Related Anatomy
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                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                        References
                        Tables

                        Tables

                        Location and Boundaries

                        • Location

                          • Boundaries

                            Function

                            • Emotional Salience and Regulation

                              • Moral Judgment

                                • Valuation

                                  • Social Attachment

                                    • Mentalizing

                                      Structural Connections

                                      • 2 Subregions Based on Structural Connectivity

                                        Functional Connections

                                        • Coactive Regions

                                          • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth)

                                            Area 25-Associated Disorders

                                            • Depression

                                              Selected References

                                              1. McMullen DP: Where to target? The precision medicine approach to brain stimulation. Biol Psychiatry. 84(1):e1-2, 2018
                                              2. Argyelan M et al: Subgenual cingulate cortical activity predicts the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy. Transl Psychiatry. 6:e789, 2016
                                              3. Clark DL et al: Intrinsic local beta oscillations in the subgenual cingulate relate to depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry. 80(11):e93-4, 2016
                                              4. Vergani F et al: Anatomic connections of the subgenual cingulate region. Neurosurgery. 79(3):465-72, 2016
                                              5. Bratman GN et al: Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112(28):8567-72, 2015
                                              6. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                              7. Kravitz DJ et al: A new neural framework for visuospatial processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 12(4):217-30, 2011
                                              8. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                              9. Harrison NA et al: Inflammation causes mood changes through alterations in subgenual cingulate activity and mesolimbic connectivity. Biol Psychiatry. 66(5):407-14, 2009
                                              10. Matthews S et al: Inhibition-related activity in subgenual cingulate is associated with symptom severity in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 172(1):1-6, 2009
                                              11. Zahn R et al: Subgenual cingulate activity reflects individual differences in empathic concern. Neurosci Lett. 457(2):107-10, 2009
                                              12. Zahn R et al: The neural basis of human social values: evidence from functional MRI. Cereb Cortex. 19(2):276-83, 2009
                                              13. Johansen-Berg H et al: Anatomical connectivity of the subgenual cingulate region targeted with deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Cereb Cortex. 18(6):1374-83, 2008
                                              14. Fehr E et al: Social neuroeconomics: the neural circuitry of social preferences. Trends Cogn Sci. 11(10):419-27, 2007
                                              15. Amodio DM et al: Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 7(4):268-77, 2006
                                              16. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                                              17. Rolls ET et al: Activity of primate subgenual cingulate cortex neurons is related to sleep. J Neurophysiol. 90(1):134-42, 2003
                                              18. Botteron KN et al: Volumetric reduction in left subgenual prefrontal cortex in early onset depression. Biol Psychiatry. 51(4):342-4, 2002
                                              19. Hirayasu Y et al: Subgenual cingulate cortex volume in first-episode psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 156(7):1091-3, 1999