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Superficial Siderosis
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Superficial siderosis (SS), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
          • Synonyms

            • Central nervous system siderosis, hemosiderosis
          • Definitions

            • Recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (multiple etiologies) causing hemosiderin deposition on cord and nerve surface

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Pikis S et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system secondary to spinal ependymoma. J Clin Neurosci. ePub, 2014
                                    2. De Reuck J et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates. Cerebrovasc Dis. 36(5-6):412-7, 2013
                                    3. Kumar N: Neuroimaging in superficial siderosis: an in-depth look. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):5-14, 2010
                                    4. Messori A et al: The importance of suspecting superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in clinical practice. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(2):188-90, 2004
                                    5. Anderson NE: Late complications in childhood central nervous system tumour survivors. Curr Opin Neurol. 16(6):677-83, 2003
                                    6. Yoshida S et al: Superficial siderosis from spinal teratoma. Lancet. 360(9345):1539, 2002
                                    7. Polidori MC et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a 70-year-old man with ataxia, depression and visual deficits. Gerontology. 47(2):93-5, 2001
                                    8. Bostantjopoulou S et al: Superficial CNS siderosis and spinal pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology. 55(3):450, 2000
                                    9. Padberg M et al: Cerebral siderosis: deafness by a spinal tumor. J Neurol. 247(6):473, 2000
                                    10. Manfredi M et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system and anticoagulant therapy: a case report. Ital J Neurol Sci. 20(4):247-9, 1999
                                    11. Pelak VS et al: Evidence for preganglionic pupillary involvement in superficial siderosis. Neurology. 53(5):1130-2, 1999
                                    12. Lemmerling M et al: Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss. Neuroradiology. 40(5):312-4, 1998
                                    13. Schievink WI et al: Surgical treatment of superficial siderosis associated with a spinal arteriovenous malformation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 89(6):1029-31, 1998
                                    14. Lai MT et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a case with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. J Laryngol Otol. 109(6):549-52, 1995
                                    15. Pyhtinen J et al: Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system. Neuroradiology. 37(2):127-8, 1995
                                    16. Bonito V et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury. Case report. J Neurosurg. 80(5):931-4, 1994
                                    17. Pribitkin EA et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: an underdiagnosed cause of sensorineural hearing loss and ataxia. Am J Otol. 15(3):415-8, 1994
                                    18. River Y et al: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. Mov Disord. 9(5):559-62, 1994
                                    19. Bracchi M et al: Superficial siderosis of the CNS: MR diagnosis and clinical findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(1):227-36, 1993
                                    20. Grunshaw ND et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system--diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol. 48(3):186-8, 1993
                                    21. Kumar A et al: Posterior fossa surgery: an unusual cause of superficial siderosis. Neurosurgery. 32(3):455-7; discussion 457, 1993
                                    22. Parnes SM et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a neglected cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 107(1):69-77, 1992
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Abbreviations

                                              • Superficial siderosis (SS), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)
                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Central nervous system siderosis, hemosiderosis
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (multiple etiologies) causing hemosiderin deposition on cord and nerve surface

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                            • Presentation

                                                              • Demographics

                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                    • Consider

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Pikis S et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system secondary to spinal ependymoma. J Clin Neurosci. ePub, 2014
                                                                      2. De Reuck J et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates. Cerebrovasc Dis. 36(5-6):412-7, 2013
                                                                      3. Kumar N: Neuroimaging in superficial siderosis: an in-depth look. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(1):5-14, 2010
                                                                      4. Messori A et al: The importance of suspecting superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in clinical practice. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(2):188-90, 2004
                                                                      5. Anderson NE: Late complications in childhood central nervous system tumour survivors. Curr Opin Neurol. 16(6):677-83, 2003
                                                                      6. Yoshida S et al: Superficial siderosis from spinal teratoma. Lancet. 360(9345):1539, 2002
                                                                      7. Polidori MC et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a 70-year-old man with ataxia, depression and visual deficits. Gerontology. 47(2):93-5, 2001
                                                                      8. Bostantjopoulou S et al: Superficial CNS siderosis and spinal pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology. 55(3):450, 2000
                                                                      9. Padberg M et al: Cerebral siderosis: deafness by a spinal tumor. J Neurol. 247(6):473, 2000
                                                                      10. Manfredi M et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system and anticoagulant therapy: a case report. Ital J Neurol Sci. 20(4):247-9, 1999
                                                                      11. Pelak VS et al: Evidence for preganglionic pupillary involvement in superficial siderosis. Neurology. 53(5):1130-2, 1999
                                                                      12. Lemmerling M et al: Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss. Neuroradiology. 40(5):312-4, 1998
                                                                      13. Schievink WI et al: Surgical treatment of superficial siderosis associated with a spinal arteriovenous malformation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 89(6):1029-31, 1998
                                                                      14. Lai MT et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a case with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. J Laryngol Otol. 109(6):549-52, 1995
                                                                      15. Pyhtinen J et al: Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system. Neuroradiology. 37(2):127-8, 1995
                                                                      16. Bonito V et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury. Case report. J Neurosurg. 80(5):931-4, 1994
                                                                      17. Pribitkin EA et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: an underdiagnosed cause of sensorineural hearing loss and ataxia. Am J Otol. 15(3):415-8, 1994
                                                                      18. River Y et al: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. Mov Disord. 9(5):559-62, 1994
                                                                      19. Bracchi M et al: Superficial siderosis of the CNS: MR diagnosis and clinical findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(1):227-36, 1993
                                                                      20. Grunshaw ND et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system--diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol. 48(3):186-8, 1993
                                                                      21. Kumar A et al: Posterior fossa surgery: an unusual cause of superficial siderosis. Neurosurgery. 32(3):455-7; discussion 457, 1993
                                                                      22. Parnes SM et al: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: a neglected cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 107(1):69-77, 1992