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Superior Vena Cava Obstruction
Allen Heeger, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome
              • Definitions

                • Obstruction of SVC due to intraluminal or extrinsic disease
                  • Impaired venous return from head, neck, upper extremities, and trunk to right atrium

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Angiographic Findings

                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                            • Imaging Recommendations

                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                PATHOLOGY

                                • General Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Seligson MT et al: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome 2020
                                              2. Garrana SH et al: Multimodality imaging of focal and diffuse fibrosing mediastinitis. Radiographics. 39(3):651-67, 2019
                                              3. Kalra M et al: Endovenous and operative treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. Surg Clin North Am. 98(2):321-35, 2018
                                              4. Zimmerman S et al: Rapid fire: superior vena cava syndrome. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 36(3):577-84, 2018
                                              5. Friedman T et al: Malignant venous obstruction: superior vena cava syndrome and beyond. Semin Intervent Radiol. 34(4):398-408, 2017
                                              6. Sfyroeras GS et al: A review of open and endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome of benign aetiology. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 53(2):238-54, 2017
                                              7. Breault S et al: Percutaneous endovascular management of chronic superior vena cava syndrome of benign causes : long-term follow-up. Eur Radiol. 27(1):97-104, 2016
                                              8. Sonavane SK et al: Comprehensive imaging review of the superior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(7):1873-92, 2015
                                              9. Sheth S et al: Superior vena cava obstruction evaluation with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(4):W336-46, 2010
                                              10. Yu JB et al: Superior vena cava syndrome--a proposed classification system and algorithm for management. J Thorac Oncol. 3(8):811-4, 2008
                                              11. Wilson LD et al: Clinical practice. Superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes. N Engl J Med. 356(18):1862-9, 2007
                                              12. Eren S et al: The superior vena cava syndrome caused by malignant disease. Imaging with multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol. 59(1):93-103, 2006
                                              13. Kalra M et al: Open surgical and endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome caused by nonmalignant disease. J Vasc Surg. 38(2):215-23, 2003
                                              14. Kim HJ et al: CT diagnosis of superior vena cava syndrome: importance of collateral vessels. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(3):539-42, 1993
                                              15. Parish JM et al: Etiologic considerations in superior vena cava syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 56(7):407-13, 1981
                                              16. Webb WR et al: Catheter venography in the superior vena cava syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 129(1):146-8, 1977
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Obstruction of SVC due to intraluminal or extrinsic disease
                                                              • Impaired venous return from head, neck, upper extremities, and trunk to right atrium

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Seligson MT et al: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome 2020
                                                                                          2. Garrana SH et al: Multimodality imaging of focal and diffuse fibrosing mediastinitis. Radiographics. 39(3):651-67, 2019
                                                                                          3. Kalra M et al: Endovenous and operative treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. Surg Clin North Am. 98(2):321-35, 2018
                                                                                          4. Zimmerman S et al: Rapid fire: superior vena cava syndrome. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 36(3):577-84, 2018
                                                                                          5. Friedman T et al: Malignant venous obstruction: superior vena cava syndrome and beyond. Semin Intervent Radiol. 34(4):398-408, 2017
                                                                                          6. Sfyroeras GS et al: A review of open and endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome of benign aetiology. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 53(2):238-54, 2017
                                                                                          7. Breault S et al: Percutaneous endovascular management of chronic superior vena cava syndrome of benign causes : long-term follow-up. Eur Radiol. 27(1):97-104, 2016
                                                                                          8. Sonavane SK et al: Comprehensive imaging review of the superior vena cava. Radiographics. 35(7):1873-92, 2015
                                                                                          9. Sheth S et al: Superior vena cava obstruction evaluation with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(4):W336-46, 2010
                                                                                          10. Yu JB et al: Superior vena cava syndrome--a proposed classification system and algorithm for management. J Thorac Oncol. 3(8):811-4, 2008
                                                                                          11. Wilson LD et al: Clinical practice. Superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes. N Engl J Med. 356(18):1862-9, 2007
                                                                                          12. Eren S et al: The superior vena cava syndrome caused by malignant disease. Imaging with multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol. 59(1):93-103, 2006
                                                                                          13. Kalra M et al: Open surgical and endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome caused by nonmalignant disease. J Vasc Surg. 38(2):215-23, 2003
                                                                                          14. Kim HJ et al: CT diagnosis of superior vena cava syndrome: importance of collateral vessels. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 161(3):539-42, 1993
                                                                                          15. Parish JM et al: Etiologic considerations in superior vena cava syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 56(7):407-13, 1981
                                                                                          16. Webb WR et al: Catheter venography in the superior vena cava syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 129(1):146-8, 1977