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Tarsal Coalition
Christopher G. Anton, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Tarsal fusion
        • Definitions

          • Congenital or acquired abnormal fusion of ≥ 2 tarsal bones
            • Union may be osseous, cartilaginous, or fibrous

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Reporting Tips

                                    Selected References

                                    1. King A et al: Endoscopic resection of tarsal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 25(3):493-503, 2020
                                    2. Phyo N et al: The radiological diagnosis of extra-articular posteromedial talocalcaneal coalition. Skeletal Radiol. 49(9):1413-22, 2020
                                    3. Docquier PL et al: Tarsal coalition in paediatric patients. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 105(1S):S123-31, 2019
                                    4. Steinborn M et al: Normal variations and pathologic disorders of chondrification and ossification of the foot and related diseases. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 23(5):497-510, 2019
                                    5. Bixby SD et al: Posteromedial subtalar coalitions: prevalence and associated morphological alterations of the sustentaculum tali. Pediatr Radiol. 46(8):1142-9, 2016
                                    6. Murphy JS et al: Talocalcaneal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 20(4):681-91, 2015
                                    7. Denning JR: Tarsal coalition in children. Pediatr Ann. 45(4):e139-43, 2016
                                    8. Swensen SJ et al: Tarsal coalitions - calcaneonavicular coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 20(4):669-79, 2015
                                    9. Lawrence DA et al: Tarsal coalitions: radiographic, CT, and MR imaging findings. HSS J. 10(2):153-66, 2014
                                    10. Moraleda L et al: C sign: talocalcaneal coalition or flatfoot deformity? J Pediatr Orthop. 34(8):814-9, 2014
                                    11. Bauer T et al: Endoscopic resection of a calcaneonavicular coalition. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 18(5):669-72, 2010
                                    12. Rozansky A et al: A radiologic classification of talocalcaneal coalitions based on 3D reconstruction. J Child Orthop. 4(2):129-35, 2010
                                    13. Zaw H et al: Tarsal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):349-64, 2010
                                    14. Field C et al: Resection of middle facet coalition with arthroscopic guidance. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(2):273-6, 2009
                                    15. Crim J: Imaging of tarsal coalition. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(6):1017-26, vi, 2008
                                    16. Crim JR et al: Radiographic diagnosis of tarsal coalition. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):323-8, 2004
                                    17. Bohne WH: Tarsal coalition. Curr Opin Pediatr. 13(1):29-35, 2001
                                    18. Brown RR et al: The C sign: more specific for flatfoot deformity than subtalar coalition. Skeletal Radiol. 30(2):84-7, 2001
                                    19. Blakemore LC et al: The rigid flatfoot. Tarsal coalitions. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 17(3):531-55, 2000
                                    20. Newman JS et al: Congenital tarsal coalition: multimodality evaluation with emphasis on CT and MR imaging. Radiographics. 20(2):321-32; quiz 526-7, 532, 2000
                                    21. Varner KE et al: Tarsal coalition in adults. Foot Ankle Int. 21(8):669-72, 2000
                                    22. Gessner AJ et al: Tarsal coalition in pediatric patients. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 3(3):239-46, 1999
                                    23. Sakellariou A et al: Tarsal coalition. Orthopedics. 22(11):1066-73; discussion 1073-4; quiz 10, 1999
                                    24. Emery KH et al: Tarsal coalition: a blinded comparison of MRI and CT. Pediatr Radiol. 28(8):612-6, 1998
                                    25. Vincent KA: Tarsal coalition and painful flatfoot. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 6(5):274-81, 1998
                                    26. Kulik SA Jr et al: Tarsal coalition. Foot Ankle Int. 17(5):286-96, 1996
                                    27. Laor T et al: MR imaging in congenital lower limb deformities. Pediatr Radiol. 26(6):381-7, 1996
                                    28. Lateur LM et al: Subtalar coalition: diagnosis with the C sign on lateral radiographs of the ankle. Radiology. 193(3):847-51, 1994
                                    29. Pfeiffer WH et al: Clinical results after tarsal tunnel decompression. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 76(8):1222-30, 1994
                                    30. Oestreich AE et al: The "anteater nose": a direct sign of calcaneonavicular coalition on the lateral radiograph. J Pediatr Orthop. 7(6):709-11, 1987
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Tarsal fusion
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Congenital or acquired abnormal fusion of ≥ 2 tarsal bones
                                              • Union may be osseous, cartilaginous, or fibrous

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                          • Presentation

                                                            • Demographics

                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. King A et al: Endoscopic resection of tarsal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 25(3):493-503, 2020
                                                                      2. Phyo N et al: The radiological diagnosis of extra-articular posteromedial talocalcaneal coalition. Skeletal Radiol. 49(9):1413-22, 2020
                                                                      3. Docquier PL et al: Tarsal coalition in paediatric patients. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 105(1S):S123-31, 2019
                                                                      4. Steinborn M et al: Normal variations and pathologic disorders of chondrification and ossification of the foot and related diseases. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 23(5):497-510, 2019
                                                                      5. Bixby SD et al: Posteromedial subtalar coalitions: prevalence and associated morphological alterations of the sustentaculum tali. Pediatr Radiol. 46(8):1142-9, 2016
                                                                      6. Murphy JS et al: Talocalcaneal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 20(4):681-91, 2015
                                                                      7. Denning JR: Tarsal coalition in children. Pediatr Ann. 45(4):e139-43, 2016
                                                                      8. Swensen SJ et al: Tarsal coalitions - calcaneonavicular coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 20(4):669-79, 2015
                                                                      9. Lawrence DA et al: Tarsal coalitions: radiographic, CT, and MR imaging findings. HSS J. 10(2):153-66, 2014
                                                                      10. Moraleda L et al: C sign: talocalcaneal coalition or flatfoot deformity? J Pediatr Orthop. 34(8):814-9, 2014
                                                                      11. Bauer T et al: Endoscopic resection of a calcaneonavicular coalition. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 18(5):669-72, 2010
                                                                      12. Rozansky A et al: A radiologic classification of talocalcaneal coalitions based on 3D reconstruction. J Child Orthop. 4(2):129-35, 2010
                                                                      13. Zaw H et al: Tarsal coalitions. Foot Ankle Clin. 15(2):349-64, 2010
                                                                      14. Field C et al: Resection of middle facet coalition with arthroscopic guidance. J Foot Ankle Surg. 48(2):273-6, 2009
                                                                      15. Crim J: Imaging of tarsal coalition. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(6):1017-26, vi, 2008
                                                                      16. Crim JR et al: Radiographic diagnosis of tarsal coalition. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 182(2):323-8, 2004
                                                                      17. Bohne WH: Tarsal coalition. Curr Opin Pediatr. 13(1):29-35, 2001
                                                                      18. Brown RR et al: The C sign: more specific for flatfoot deformity than subtalar coalition. Skeletal Radiol. 30(2):84-7, 2001
                                                                      19. Blakemore LC et al: The rigid flatfoot. Tarsal coalitions. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 17(3):531-55, 2000
                                                                      20. Newman JS et al: Congenital tarsal coalition: multimodality evaluation with emphasis on CT and MR imaging. Radiographics. 20(2):321-32; quiz 526-7, 532, 2000
                                                                      21. Varner KE et al: Tarsal coalition in adults. Foot Ankle Int. 21(8):669-72, 2000
                                                                      22. Gessner AJ et al: Tarsal coalition in pediatric patients. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 3(3):239-46, 1999
                                                                      23. Sakellariou A et al: Tarsal coalition. Orthopedics. 22(11):1066-73; discussion 1073-4; quiz 10, 1999
                                                                      24. Emery KH et al: Tarsal coalition: a blinded comparison of MRI and CT. Pediatr Radiol. 28(8):612-6, 1998
                                                                      25. Vincent KA: Tarsal coalition and painful flatfoot. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 6(5):274-81, 1998
                                                                      26. Kulik SA Jr et al: Tarsal coalition. Foot Ankle Int. 17(5):286-96, 1996
                                                                      27. Laor T et al: MR imaging in congenital lower limb deformities. Pediatr Radiol. 26(6):381-7, 1996
                                                                      28. Lateur LM et al: Subtalar coalition: diagnosis with the C sign on lateral radiographs of the ankle. Radiology. 193(3):847-51, 1994
                                                                      29. Pfeiffer WH et al: Clinical results after tarsal tunnel decompression. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 76(8):1222-30, 1994
                                                                      30. Oestreich AE et al: The "anteater nose": a direct sign of calcaneonavicular coalition on the lateral radiograph. J Pediatr Orthop. 7(6):709-11, 1987