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Temporal Bone Facial Nerve Venous Malformation (Hemangioma)
Bronwyn E. Hamilton, MD; H. Ric Harnsberger, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Facial nerve venous malformation (FNVM)
            • Synonyms

              • Facial nerve hemangioma/ossifying hemangioma
                • Historic terms for FNVM
            • Definitions

              • FNVM: Benign developmental lesion near intratemporal facial nerve in geniculate fossa area

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Rao D et al: A case of a facial nerve venous malformation presenting with crocodile tear syndrome. Surg Neurol Int. 11:3, 2020
                                          2. Bonali M et al: Endoscopic transcanal approach to geniculate ganglion hemangioma and simultaneous facial nerve reinnervation: a case report. J Int Adv Otol. 15(1):165-68, 2019
                                          3. Guerin JB et al: Facial nerve venous malformation: a radiologic and histopathologic review of 11 cases. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 4(3):347-52, 2019
                                          4. ISSVA International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Published May 2018. Accessed 1/30/2021. https://www.issva.org/classification
                                          5. Wick CC et al: Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for excision of a facial nerve venous malformation with interposition nerve grafting: a case report. Otol Neurotol. 38(6):895-9, 2017
                                          6. Lahlou G et al: Geniculate ganglion tumors: clinical presentation and surgical results. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 155(5):850-5, 2016
                                          7. Maiodna E et al: Cavernous malformation of the seventh cranial nerve: case report and review of literature. World Neurosurg. 91:676.e13-21, 2016
                                          8. Omor Y et al: "Honeycomb" sign. Presse Med. 45(5):541-3, 2016
                                          9. Yue Y et al: Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 272(9):2497-503, 2015
                                          10. Ma X et al: Facial nerve preservation in geniculate ganglion hemangiomas. Acta Otolaryngol. 134(9):974-6, 2014
                                          11. Benoit MM et al: Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 142(1):108-14, 2010
                                          12. Greene AK et al: Intraosseous "hemangiomas" are malformations and not tumors. Plast Reconstr Surg. 119(6):1949-50; author reply 1950, 2007
                                          13. Isaacson B et al: Hemangiomas of the geniculate ganglion. Otol Neurotol. 26(4):796-802, 2005
                                          14. Bernardeschi D et al: Vascular malformation (so-called hemangioma) of Scarpa's ganglion. Acta Otolaryngol. 124(9):1099-102, 2004
                                          15. Piccirillo E et al: Management of temporal bone hemangiomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 113(6):431-7, 2004
                                          16. Achilli V et al: Facial nerve hemangioma. Otol Neurotol. 23(6):1003-4, 2002
                                          17. Friedman O et al: Temporal bone hemangiomas involving the facial nerve. Otol Neurotol. 23(5):760-6, 2002
                                          18. Salib RJ et al: The crucial role of imaging in detection of facial nerve haemangiomas. J Laryngol Otol. 115(6):510-3, 2001
                                          19. Dufour JJ et al: Intratemporal vascular malformations (angiomas): particular clinical features. J Otolaryngol. 23(4):250-3, 1994
                                          20. Martin N et al: Haemangioma of the petrous bone: MRI. Neuroradiology. 34(5):420-2, 1992
                                          21. Shelton C et al: Intratemporal facial nerve hemangiomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 104(1):116-21, 1991
                                          22. Lo WW et al: Intratemporal vascular tumors: detection with CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 171(2):445-8, 1989
                                          23. Curtin HD et al: "Ossifying" hemangiomas of the temporal bone: evaluation with CT. Radiology. 164(3):831-5, 1987
                                          24. Mulliken JB et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 69(3):412-22, 1982
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Facial nerve venous malformation (FNVM)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Facial nerve hemangioma/ossifying hemangioma
                                                        • Historic terms for FNVM
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • FNVM: Benign developmental lesion near intratemporal facial nerve in geniculate fossa area

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Rao D et al: A case of a facial nerve venous malformation presenting with crocodile tear syndrome. Surg Neurol Int. 11:3, 2020
                                                                                  2. Bonali M et al: Endoscopic transcanal approach to geniculate ganglion hemangioma and simultaneous facial nerve reinnervation: a case report. J Int Adv Otol. 15(1):165-68, 2019
                                                                                  3. Guerin JB et al: Facial nerve venous malformation: a radiologic and histopathologic review of 11 cases. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 4(3):347-52, 2019
                                                                                  4. ISSVA International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. Published May 2018. Accessed 1/30/2021. https://www.issva.org/classification
                                                                                  5. Wick CC et al: Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for excision of a facial nerve venous malformation with interposition nerve grafting: a case report. Otol Neurotol. 38(6):895-9, 2017
                                                                                  6. Lahlou G et al: Geniculate ganglion tumors: clinical presentation and surgical results. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 155(5):850-5, 2016
                                                                                  7. Maiodna E et al: Cavernous malformation of the seventh cranial nerve: case report and review of literature. World Neurosurg. 91:676.e13-21, 2016
                                                                                  8. Omor Y et al: "Honeycomb" sign. Presse Med. 45(5):541-3, 2016
                                                                                  9. Yue Y et al: Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 272(9):2497-503, 2015
                                                                                  10. Ma X et al: Facial nerve preservation in geniculate ganglion hemangiomas. Acta Otolaryngol. 134(9):974-6, 2014
                                                                                  11. Benoit MM et al: Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 142(1):108-14, 2010
                                                                                  12. Greene AK et al: Intraosseous "hemangiomas" are malformations and not tumors. Plast Reconstr Surg. 119(6):1949-50; author reply 1950, 2007
                                                                                  13. Isaacson B et al: Hemangiomas of the geniculate ganglion. Otol Neurotol. 26(4):796-802, 2005
                                                                                  14. Bernardeschi D et al: Vascular malformation (so-called hemangioma) of Scarpa's ganglion. Acta Otolaryngol. 124(9):1099-102, 2004
                                                                                  15. Piccirillo E et al: Management of temporal bone hemangiomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 113(6):431-7, 2004
                                                                                  16. Achilli V et al: Facial nerve hemangioma. Otol Neurotol. 23(6):1003-4, 2002
                                                                                  17. Friedman O et al: Temporal bone hemangiomas involving the facial nerve. Otol Neurotol. 23(5):760-6, 2002
                                                                                  18. Salib RJ et al: The crucial role of imaging in detection of facial nerve haemangiomas. J Laryngol Otol. 115(6):510-3, 2001
                                                                                  19. Dufour JJ et al: Intratemporal vascular malformations (angiomas): particular clinical features. J Otolaryngol. 23(4):250-3, 1994
                                                                                  20. Martin N et al: Haemangioma of the petrous bone: MRI. Neuroradiology. 34(5):420-2, 1992
                                                                                  21. Shelton C et al: Intratemporal facial nerve hemangiomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 104(1):116-21, 1991
                                                                                  22. Lo WW et al: Intratemporal vascular tumors: detection with CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 171(2):445-8, 1989
                                                                                  23. Curtin HD et al: "Ossifying" hemangiomas of the temporal bone: evaluation with CT. Radiology. 164(3):831-5, 1987
                                                                                  24. Mulliken JB et al: Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 69(3):412-22, 1982