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Temporal Cortex (Areas 20, 21, 22)
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD; Jared A. Nielsen, PhD
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Location and Boundaries

  • Location

    • Boundaries

      Function

      • Heterogeneous Function

        • Auditory Processing

          • Language

            • Motion Perception and Attention

              • High-Order Visual Processing (Ventral "What" Pathway)

                • Social Cognition

                  Structural Connections

                  • Inputs

                    • Reciprocal Connections

                      Functional Connections

                      • Coactive Regions

                        • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth, Area 21)

                          Areas 20-, 21-, 22-Associated Disorders

                          • Wernicke Aphasia

                            Selected References

                            1. Bonilha L et al: Temporal lobe networks supporting the comprehension of spoken words. Brain. 140(9):2370-80, 2017
                            2. Murphy C et al: Fractionating the anterior temporal lobe: MVPA reveals differential responses to input and conceptual modality. Neuroimage. 147:19-31, 2017
                            3. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                            4. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                            5. Destrieux C et al: Automatic parcellation of human cortical gyri and sulci using standard anatomical nomenclature. Neuroimage. 53(1):1-15, 2010
                            6. Dahl CD et al: Spatial organization of multisensory responses in temporal association cortex. J Neurosci. 29(38):11924-32, 2009
                            7. Hein G et al: Superior temporal sulcus--it's my area: or is it? J Cogn Neurosci. 20(12):2125-36, 2008
                            8. Hickok G et al: The cortical organization of speech processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 8(5):393-402, 2007
                            9. Zilbovicius M et al: Autism, the superior temporal sulcus and social perception. Trends Neurosci. 29(7):359-66, 2006
                            10. Kable JW et al: Conceptual representations of action in the lateral temporal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci. 17(12):1855-70, 2005
                            11. Kraemer DJ et al: Musical imagery: sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature. 434(7030):158, 2005
                            12. Catani M et al: Occipito-temporal connections in the human brain. Brain. 126(Pt 9):2093-107, 2003
                            13. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                            14. Buckner RL et al: Functional MRI evidence for a role of frontal and inferior temporal cortex in amodal components of priming. Brain. 123 Pt 3:620-40, 2000
                            15. Kim JJ et al: An MRI-based parcellation method for the temporal lobe. Neuroimage. 11(4):271-88, 2000
                            16. Nobre AC et al: Word recognition in the human inferior temporal lobe. Nature. 372(6503):260-3, 1994
                            17. Lüders H et al: Basal temporal language area. Brain. 114 ( Pt 2):743-54, 1991
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            Location and Boundaries

                            • Location

                              • Boundaries

                                Function

                                • Heterogeneous Function

                                  • Auditory Processing

                                    • Language

                                      • Motion Perception and Attention

                                        • High-Order Visual Processing (Ventral "What" Pathway)

                                          • Social Cognition

                                            Structural Connections

                                            • Inputs

                                              • Reciprocal Connections

                                                Functional Connections

                                                • Coactive Regions

                                                  • Associated Literature Keywords (NeuroSynth, Area 21)

                                                    Areas 20-, 21-, 22-Associated Disorders

                                                    • Wernicke Aphasia

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Bonilha L et al: Temporal lobe networks supporting the comprehension of spoken words. Brain. 140(9):2370-80, 2017
                                                      2. Murphy C et al: Fractionating the anterior temporal lobe: MVPA reveals differential responses to input and conceptual modality. Neuroimage. 147:19-31, 2017
                                                      3. Van Essen DC et al: Parcellations and hemispheric asymmetries of human cerebral cortex analyzed on surface-based atlases. Cereb Cortex. 22(10):2241-62, 2012
                                                      4. Marcus DS et al: Informatics and data mining tools and strategies for the human connectome project. Front Neuroinform. 5:4, 2011
                                                      5. Destrieux C et al: Automatic parcellation of human cortical gyri and sulci using standard anatomical nomenclature. Neuroimage. 53(1):1-15, 2010
                                                      6. Dahl CD et al: Spatial organization of multisensory responses in temporal association cortex. J Neurosci. 29(38):11924-32, 2009
                                                      7. Hein G et al: Superior temporal sulcus--it's my area: or is it? J Cogn Neurosci. 20(12):2125-36, 2008
                                                      8. Hickok G et al: The cortical organization of speech processing. Nat Rev Neurosci. 8(5):393-402, 2007
                                                      9. Zilbovicius M et al: Autism, the superior temporal sulcus and social perception. Trends Neurosci. 29(7):359-66, 2006
                                                      10. Kable JW et al: Conceptual representations of action in the lateral temporal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci. 17(12):1855-70, 2005
                                                      11. Kraemer DJ et al: Musical imagery: sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature. 434(7030):158, 2005
                                                      12. Catani M et al: Occipito-temporal connections in the human brain. Brain. 126(Pt 9):2093-107, 2003
                                                      13. Maldjian JA et al: An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets. Neuroimage. 19(3):1233-9, 2003
                                                      14. Buckner RL et al: Functional MRI evidence for a role of frontal and inferior temporal cortex in amodal components of priming. Brain. 123 Pt 3:620-40, 2000
                                                      15. Kim JJ et al: An MRI-based parcellation method for the temporal lobe. Neuroimage. 11(4):271-88, 2000
                                                      16. Nobre AC et al: Word recognition in the human inferior temporal lobe. Nature. 372(6503):260-3, 1994
                                                      17. Lüders H et al: Basal temporal language area. Brain. 114 ( Pt 2):743-54, 1991