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Terminal Myelocystocele
Usha D. Nagaraj, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Terminal syringocele, lipomyelocystocele
            • Definitions

              • Hydromyelic spinal cord surrounded by expanded subarachnoid space herniated through dorsal lumbosacral osseous defect
              • Type of closed spinal dysraphism (with subcutaneous mass)
                • Can be called lipomyelocystocele if associated with thickened fatty dorsal mesoderm

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Kumar N et al: Patterns of spinal cord malformation in cloacal exstrophy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-8, 2021
                                            2. Lee JY et al: Terminal myelocystocele : pathoembryogenesis and clinical features. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 63(3):321-6, 2020
                                            3. Chaturvedi A et al: Caudal cell mass developmental aberrations: an imaging approach. Clin Imaging. 52:216-25, 2018
                                            4. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                                            5. Muthukumar N: Terminal myelocystocele with holocord syringomyelia: Short report. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(2):171-2, 2013
                                            6. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. Sixth edition. Wolters Kluwer. 1007-8, 2019
                                            7. Pang D et al: Terminal myelocystocele: surgical observations and theory of embryogenesis. Neurosurgery. 70(6):1383-404; discussion 1404-5, 2012
                                            8. Tandon V et al: Terminal myelocystocele: a series of 30 cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 48(4):229-35, 2012
                                            9. Hashiguchi K et al: Holocord hydrosyringomyelia with terminal myelocystocele revealed by constructive interference in steady-state MR imaging. Pediatr Neurosurg. 44(6):509-12, 2008
                                            10. Morioka T et al: Neurosurgical management of occult spinal dysraphism associated with OEIS complex. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(6):723-9, 2008
                                            11. Muthukumar N: Terminal and nonterminal myelocystoceles. J Neurosurg. 107(2 Suppl):87-97, 2007
                                            12. Gupta DK et al: Terminal myelocystoceles: a series of 17 cases. J Neurosurg. 103(4 Suppl):344-52, 2005
                                            13. Tortori-Donati P et al: Pediatric Neuroradiology. Heidelburg, Germany. 1574-6, 2005
                                            14. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                            15. Tortori-Donati P et al: Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology. 42(7):471-91, 2000
                                            16. Byrd SE et al: Imaging of terminal myelocystoceles. J Natl Med Assoc. 88(8):510-6, 1996
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Terminal syringocele, lipomyelocystocele
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Hydromyelic spinal cord surrounded by expanded subarachnoid space herniated through dorsal lumbosacral osseous defect
                                                        • Type of closed spinal dysraphism (with subcutaneous mass)
                                                          • Can be called lipomyelocystocele if associated with thickened fatty dorsal mesoderm

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Kumar N et al: Patterns of spinal cord malformation in cloacal exstrophy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 1-8, 2021
                                                                                      2. Lee JY et al: Terminal myelocystocele : pathoembryogenesis and clinical features. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 63(3):321-6, 2020
                                                                                      3. Chaturvedi A et al: Caudal cell mass developmental aberrations: an imaging approach. Clin Imaging. 52:216-25, 2018
                                                                                      4. Nagaraj UD et al: Differentiating closed versus open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 207(6):1316-23, 2016
                                                                                      5. Muthukumar N: Terminal myelocystocele with holocord syringomyelia: Short report. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(2):171-2, 2013
                                                                                      6. Barkovich AJ et al: Pediatric Neuroimaging. Sixth edition. Wolters Kluwer. 1007-8, 2019
                                                                                      7. Pang D et al: Terminal myelocystocele: surgical observations and theory of embryogenesis. Neurosurgery. 70(6):1383-404; discussion 1404-5, 2012
                                                                                      8. Tandon V et al: Terminal myelocystocele: a series of 30 cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 48(4):229-35, 2012
                                                                                      9. Hashiguchi K et al: Holocord hydrosyringomyelia with terminal myelocystocele revealed by constructive interference in steady-state MR imaging. Pediatr Neurosurg. 44(6):509-12, 2008
                                                                                      10. Morioka T et al: Neurosurgical management of occult spinal dysraphism associated with OEIS complex. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(6):723-9, 2008
                                                                                      11. Muthukumar N: Terminal and nonterminal myelocystoceles. J Neurosurg. 107(2 Suppl):87-97, 2007
                                                                                      12. Gupta DK et al: Terminal myelocystoceles: a series of 17 cases. J Neurosurg. 103(4 Suppl):344-52, 2005
                                                                                      13. Tortori-Donati P et al: Pediatric Neuroradiology. Heidelburg, Germany. 1574-6, 2005
                                                                                      14. Rossi A et al: Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations. Eur J Radiol. 50(2):177-200, 2004
                                                                                      15. Tortori-Donati P et al: Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology. 42(7):471-91, 2000
                                                                                      16. Byrd SE et al: Imaging of terminal myelocystoceles. J Natl Med Assoc. 88(8):510-6, 1996