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Testicular Cancer
Brad Perry, MD; Paige Bennett, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Top Differential Diagnoses

    • Pathology

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Germ cell tumors: Heterogeneous, solid mass
            • Seminomas: No cystic areas or calcification
            • Nonseminomatous: Variable cystic elements, calcification, necrosis/hemorrhage
            • Any size can be malignant
          • Primary tumor
            • Intratesticular, within tunica albuginea
            • Metastases
              • Regional lymph nodes
              • Lung
              • Brain
          • Non-germ cell tumors: Well circumscribed, round to lobulated
            • Malignant usually > 5 cm

        IMAGING

        • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

          • MR Findings

            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

              PATHOLOGY

              • General Features

                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                  • Definitions

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                          • Treatment

                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                            • Consider

                              • Reporting Tips

                                Selected References

                                1. Bouchelouche K et al: PET/computed tomography in renal, bladder, and testicular cancer. PET Clin. 10(3):361-74, 2015
                                2. Ambrosini V et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT impact on testicular tumours clinical management. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 41(4):668-73, 2014
                                3. Testicular cancer: What the radiologist needs to know. http://www.ajronline.org/doi/abs/10.2214/AJR.12.10319. Published June, 2013. Accessed January, 2017
                                4. Becherer A: PET in testicular cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 727:225-41, 2011
                                5. Tiemstra JD et al: Evaluation of scrotal masses. Am Fam Physician. 78(10):1165-70, 2008
                                6. Becherer A et al: FDG PET is superior to CT in the prediction of viable tumour in post-chemotherapy seminoma residuals. Eur J Radiol. 54(2):284-8, 2005
                                7. De Santis M et al: 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is a reliable predictor for viable tumor in postchemotherapy seminoma: an update of the prospective multicentric SEMPET trial. J Clin Oncol. 22(6):1034-9, 2004
                                8. Lassen U et al: Whole-body FDG-PET in patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(3):396-402, 2003
                                9. Sanchez D et al: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the evaluation of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours at relapse. BJU Int. 89(9):912-6, 2002
                                10. Spermon JR et al: The role of (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in initial staging and re-staging after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumours. BJU Int. 89(6):549-56, 2002
                                Related Anatomy
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                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                  • Pathology

                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Definitions

                                        • Germ cell tumors: Heterogeneous, solid mass
                                          • Seminomas: No cystic areas or calcification
                                          • Nonseminomatous: Variable cystic elements, calcification, necrosis/hemorrhage
                                          • Any size can be malignant
                                        • Primary tumor
                                          • Intratesticular, within tunica albuginea
                                          • Metastases
                                            • Regional lymph nodes
                                            • Lung
                                            • Brain
                                        • Non-germ cell tumors: Well circumscribed, round to lobulated
                                          • Malignant usually > 5 cm

                                      IMAGING

                                      • F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings

                                        • MR Findings

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                • Definitions

                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                  • Presentation

                                                    • Demographics

                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                        • Treatment

                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                          • Consider

                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Bouchelouche K et al: PET/computed tomography in renal, bladder, and testicular cancer. PET Clin. 10(3):361-74, 2015
                                                              2. Ambrosini V et al: 18F-FDG PET/CT impact on testicular tumours clinical management. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 41(4):668-73, 2014
                                                              3. Testicular cancer: What the radiologist needs to know. http://www.ajronline.org/doi/abs/10.2214/AJR.12.10319. Published June, 2013. Accessed January, 2017
                                                              4. Becherer A: PET in testicular cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 727:225-41, 2011
                                                              5. Tiemstra JD et al: Evaluation of scrotal masses. Am Fam Physician. 78(10):1165-70, 2008
                                                              6. Becherer A et al: FDG PET is superior to CT in the prediction of viable tumour in post-chemotherapy seminoma residuals. Eur J Radiol. 54(2):284-8, 2005
                                                              7. De Santis M et al: 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is a reliable predictor for viable tumor in postchemotherapy seminoma: an update of the prospective multicentric SEMPET trial. J Clin Oncol. 22(6):1034-9, 2004
                                                              8. Lassen U et al: Whole-body FDG-PET in patients with stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 30(3):396-402, 2003
                                                              9. Sanchez D et al: 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in the evaluation of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours at relapse. BJU Int. 89(9):912-6, 2002
                                                              10. Spermon JR et al: The role of (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in initial staging and re-staging after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumours. BJU Int. 89(6):549-56, 2002